The field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire life span.
Seeking to understand how growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person's behavior.
The study of stability and change in the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another over the life span.
The way in which individuals' interactions with others and their social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life.
What are the topical areas in lifespan development?
Physical development, cognitive development, personality development, and social development.
A shared notion of reality, one that is widely accepted but is a function of society and culture at a given time.
Biological and environmental influences associated with a particular historical moment.
Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of when or where they are raised.
The social and cultural factors present for a particular individual, depending on such variables as ethnicity, social class, and subcultural membership.
A specific, atypical event that occurs in a person's life at a time when such events do not happen to most people.
Non-normative life event
Gradual development in which achievements at one level build on those of previous levels.
Development occuring in distinct stages with qualitative change (instead of quantitative change).
A specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences and the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli is necessary for development to proceed normally.
A point in development when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments, but the absence of those stimuli does not always produce irreversible consequences.
Explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest, providing a framework for understanding the relationships among an organized set of facts or principles.
What are the 6 major perspectives of lifespan development?
The approach stating that behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts that are generally beyond people's awareness and control.
(Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson)
The theory proposed by Freud that suggests that unconcious forces act to determine personality and behavior.
According to Freud, a series of stages that children pass through in which pleasure, or gratification, focuses on a particular biological function and body part.
The approach that encompasses changes in our interactions with and understandings of one another, as well as in our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society.
The approach suggesting that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment.
(John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, Albert Bandura)
A type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response.
A form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences.
A formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones.
Learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model.
Social-cognitive learning theory
The approach that focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world.
Models that seek to identify the ways individuals take in, use, and store information.
Information processnig approaches
Approaches that examine cognitive development through the lens of brain processes.
Cognitive neuroscience approaches
The theory contending that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior.
(Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow)
The theory that considers the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds.
(Urie Bronfenbrenner, Lev Vygotsky)
The perspective suggesting that different levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals.
The approach that emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture.
The theory that seeks to identify behavior that is a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors.
(Charles Darwin, Konrad Lorenz)
Approximate age of someone in the latency stage of psychosexual development:
5-6 years to adolescence