Vocabulary: selective permeability, amphipathic, fluid mosaic model, integral protein, peripheral protein, glycoprotein, glycolipid, transport proteins, aquaporins, channel protein, carrier proteins, diffusion, osmosis, concentration gradient, passive transport, active transport, tonicity, isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic, plasmolysis, crenation, proton pump, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis, ligands
After attending lectures and studying the chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Describe the fluid-mosaic model of membrane structure.
2. Identify the following general structural components of the plasma membrane:
glycolipids / glycoproteins
3. Show the molecular structure of phospholipids.
4. Define hydrophilic and hydrophobic and relate these conditions to the structure of
5. Explain how the amphipathic nature of molecules (with hydrophilic and hydrophobic
regions) form membranes.
6. State the structural difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids and their role in maintaining optimum membrane fluidity.
7. Explain the role of cholesterol in membranes in maintaining optimum membrane fluidity.
8. State two categories of membrane proteins.
9. Describe the amphipathic nature of integral membrane proteins.
10. Describe the extracellular matrix attached to the outside of the plasma membrane in animal
11. Describe the process of making new plasma membrane sections inside a cell.
12. List the major functions of the plasma membrane.
13. Describe the structure and function of the three major types of cell junctions in animal cells
(desmosomes, gap junctions, and tight junctions).
14. Describe the structure and function of plasmodesmata cell junctions between plant cells.
15. Describe how associated membrane proteins can facilitate metabolic pathways.
16. State and describe the two types of cell signaling that are used to pass information through
the plasma membrane (without passing chemicals through the membrane).
17. Explain what is meant by: "The plasma membrane is selectively permeable."
18. Distinguish between the following mechanisms used by cells to transport substances across
the plasma membrane:
19. Relating to diffusion:
a. Define diffusion.
b. State which chemical substances can diffuse directly through the plasma membrane and
which substances cannot.
c. Distinguish between a concentration gradient, a charge gradient, and an electrochemical
20. Relating to facilitated diffusion:
a. Define facilitated diffusion.
b. Define osmosis and describe the role of aquaporins in the movement of water into and
out of cells.
c. Distinguish between hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic aqueous solutions.
d. Relate solution tonicity to crenation and lysis in animal cells and to plasmolysis in plant
e. Describe ion channel receptors, explain how they can be activated by signal molecules,
and give an example of this process in humans.
21. Relating to active transport:
a. Define active transport.
b. Describe the proton pump.
22. Relating to bulk transport:
a. Define exocytosis and describe the process involving a Golgi vesicle.
b. Define endocytosis and distinguish between phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor- mediated endocytosis.