Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 8 Intelligence and Individual Differences in Cognition: Section 8.1 What is Intelligence
Terms in this set (41)
Of all the standardized tests, which attracts more attention and generates more controversy than any other test?
Tests designed to measure intelligence
What are the oldest theories of intelligence?
Who are psychometricians?
They are psychologists who specialize in measuring psychological characteristics such as intelligence and personality.
How do psychometricians research a particular question?
They usually begin by administering a large number of tests to many individuals. Then, they look for patterns in performance across the different tests.
Metaphor: The basic logic is similar to a jungle hunter trying to decide whether some dark blobs in a river are three separate rotting logs or a single alligator.
If the blobs move together, the hunter decides that they are part of the same structure, an alligator. If they do not move together, they are different structures, three logs
Similarly, if changes in performance on one psychological test are accompanies by changes in performance on a second test, that is if the scores move together, then the steps appear to measure the same attribute or factor.
What did the researcher, Charles Spearman find?
He reported findings supporting the idea that a general factor for intelligence, or g, is responsible for performance on all mental tests.
What did the researchers Thurstone and Thurstone find?
They believed that intelligence consists of distinct abilities, they analyzed performance on a wide range of tasks and identified seven distinct patterns, each reflecting a unique ability: perceptual speed, word comprehension, word fluency, space, number, memory, and induction.
Did Thurstone and Thurstone also acknowledge a general factor that operated on all tasks?
Yes, but they emphasized that the specific factors were more useful in assessing and understanding intellectual ability.
What did the conflicting theories of Charles Spearman and Thurstone and Thurstone lead many psychometric theorists to propose?
It led them to propose hierarchical theories of intelligence that include both general, and specific components.
How is the hierarchical theory of intelligence that John Caroll divided?
At the top of the hierarchy is g, general intelligence. In the middle level are eight broad categories of intellectual skill.
Each of the abilities in the second level is further divided into the skills listed in the bottom and most specific level,
T/F: Carroll's hierarchical theory is a compromise between the two views of intelligence, general versus distinct abilities.
What are the eight categories that make up John Carroll's hierarchical theory?
1. Fluid intelligence
2. Crystallized intelligence
3. General memory and learning
4. Broad visual perception
5. Broad auditory perception
6. Broad retrieval ability
7. Broad cognitive speediness
8. Processing speed
What is fluid intelligence?
It refers to the ability to perceive relations among stimuli.
What is crystallized intelligence?
It compromises a person's culturally influenced accumulated knowledge and skills, including understanding printed language, comprehending language and knowing vocabulary.
Why have some critics found Carroll's hierarchical theory to be unsatisfactory?
Because it ignores research and theory on cognitive development, and they believe that we need to look beyond the psychometric approach to understand intelligence.
Is it true that only recently have child development researchers viewed intelligence from the perspective of modern theories of cognition and cognitive development?
What particularly stands out about Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences?
Rather than using test scores as the basis for his theory, Gardner drew on research in child development, studies of brain damaged persons, and studies of exceptionally talented people.
What are the nine intelligences in Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences?
2. Logical mathematical
What is linguistic intelligence?
Knowing the meanings of words, using words to understand new ideas, and using language to convey ideas to others.
What is logical mathematical intelligence?
Understanding relations thought that exist among objects, actions, and ideas, as well as the logical or mathematical operations that can be performed on them.
What is spatial intelligence?
Perceiving objects accurately and imagining in the "mind's eye" the appearance of an object before and after it has been transformed.
What is musical intelligence?
Comprehending and producing sounds varying in pitch, rhythm, and emotional tone.
What is bodily-kinesthetic intelligence?
Using one's body in highly different ways, as dancers, craftspeople, and athletes do.
What is interpersonal intelligence?
Identifying different feelings, moods, motivations, and inventions in others.
What is intrapersonal intelligence?
Understanding one's emotions and knowing one's strengths and weaknesses.
What is naturalistic intelligence?
Understanding the natural world, distinguishing natural objects from artifacts, grouping and labeling natural phenomena.
What is existential intelligence?
Considering "ultimate" issues, such as the purpose of life and the nature of death.
What three intelligences in Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences are included in psychometric theories of intelligence?
Linguistic intelligence, logical mathematical intelligence, and spatial intelligence.
How did Gardner arrive at the nine distinct intelligences?
1. Each has a unique developmental history
2. Each intelligence is regulated by distinct regions of the brain.
3. Each has special cases of talented individuals
What is emotional intelligence and how did it come about?
It is the ability to use one's own emotions and others' emotions effectively for solving problems and living happily.
It made headlines in 1995 because of a best-selling book, Emotional Intelligence, in which the author, Daniel Goleman argued that, "emotions are at the center aptitudes for living".
What are the distinct facets that one model of emotional intelligence has?
- Perceiving emotions accurately
- Understanding emotions
- Regulating emotions
Why has most of the research on emotional intelligence been done on adults?
In large part because Goleman argued that emotional intelligence can be the key to a successful career.
According to Gardner,
what implications does the theory of multiple intelligences have for education?
- Schools should foster all intelligences, rather than just the traditional linguistic and logical mathematical intelligences.
-Teachers should capitalize on the strongest intelligences of individual children. That is, teachers need to know a child's profile of intelligence, the child's strengths and weaknesses, and gear instruction to the strengths.
-Instruction should try and engage as many different intelligences as possible.
How did Robert Sternberg begin studying intelligence?
He began by asking how adults solve problems on intelligence tests.
What was the theory that Robert Sternberg devised called?
The theory of successful intelligences
According to Sternberg, what is successful intelligence?
Using one's abilities skillfully to achieve one's personal goals. Goals can be either short term or long term.
What are the three different abilities that people use to achieve personal goals?
1. Analytic ability
2. Creative ability
3. Practical ability
What is analytic ability?
Involves analyzing problems and generating different solutions.
i.e. Considering different causes of the problem
What is creative ability?
Involves dealing flexibly with novel situations and problems.
What is practical ability?
Involves knowing what solution or plan will actually work.
Although problems can often be solved in different ways in reality only one solution is practical.
How is the theory of successful intelligence similar to the theory of multiple intelligence?
Like the theory of multiple intelligence, the theory of successful intelligence suggests that children learn best when instruction is geared to their strength.
What makes it challenging to compare intelligence test scores for individuals from different groups?
Because the pursuit of goals vary from one person to the next, and often vary in different cultural, ethnic, or racial groups.
This set is often in folders with...
Ch 16: emotional and social development in Middle…
Lifespan Development (chapter 1)
Lifespan Development Chapter 2
Lifespan: Chapter 9 Language Development
You might also like...
Ch 8: Intelligence, Individual Differences in Cogn…
Week 4: Cognitive Assessment Part 1.
Psychology Unit 2: Intelligence
Other sets by this creator
Marras glossary terms
Chapter 4 (Designing a Descriptive Study)
Ed tech final