CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking

Chapter 3 & 4 Theory test
The TCP/IP model explains how the protocol suite works to provide communications.
The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) sends data using a reliable connection.
Both TCP and UDP use port numbers for communications between hosts.
The size of the TCP window determines the number of acknowledgements sent for a given data transfer.
A small TCP window size produces few acknowledgements.
An IP address has 32 bits divided into four octets (four sets of eight binary digits).
TCP/IP networks cannot use MAC addresses in communication.
TCP/IP host use the combination of the IP address and the subnet mask to determine is other addresses are local or remote.
The file allocation of network numbers based on CIDR has led to the depletion of IP addresses.
Basic routing protocols such as RIP version 1 and IGRP support VLSM.
The invention and evolution of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite resulted from a coordinated effort by the U.S. _____.
Department of Defense (DOD)
The _____ layer in the TCP/IP model maps to the OSI Application, Presentation, and Session layers.
The _____ layer in the TCP/IP model determines the connectionless or connection-oriented services.
The _____ layer in the TCP/IP model is a direct equivalent to the Network layer in the OSI reference model.
The _____ layer of the TCP/IP model maps to both the Data Link and the Physical layers of the OSI reference model.
Network Interface
_____ is a connection-oriented protocol that allows you to connect other computers on the Internet and view Web page content.
_____is a communication method for network devices that is designed to reduce the flow of packets from their source.
Congestion avoidance
The _____ layer in the TCP/IP model handles software, or logical addressing.
The _____ protocol provides a connectionless delivery service.
Many network devices maintain tables of the MAC and IP addresses of other devices on the network. These tables are called _____.
ARP tables
A(n) _____ supplies the MAC address of the destination host in a unicast packet.
ARP reply
_____ provides the same basic functionality as RARP.
Network administrators and support personnel commonly use the _____ utility to verify connectivity between two points.
The _____ utility uses ICMP echo request/reply messages and can verify Internetwork layer (OSI-Network layer) connectivity.
Trace shows the exact path a packet takes from the source to the destination. This is accomplished through the use of the _____ counter.
Time-to-live (TTL)
A(n) _____ is caused by a malicious user or program that sends a large quantity of ICMP echo request (pings) to a target in an attempt to crash or greatly reduce the performance of the target device.
ICMP flood
A router references its _____ to determine which of its interfaces is connected to the destination network.
Routing table
_____ protocols allows the router to be updated automatically.
The Cisco _____ model does not describe how communications take place. Rather, it focuses on how best to design a network, especially a relatively large network or one that is expected to grow.
Three-Layer Hierarchical
_____ is the process of assigning unique IP addresses to devices on the network.
IP addressing
A(n) _____ address identifies both a network and a host, so you can route communications through large networks, including the Internet.
It seems that (decimal) is the highest Class A address, but that particular address range is reserved as the _____ address.
To determine how many digits are used for the network identifier, you must look at the _____, which is a required component for all IP hosts.
Subnet mask
When the host portion of an IP address is all binary zeros, that address is the _____ identifier.
The CIDR addressing method allows the use of a _____ to designate the number of network bits in the mask.
_____ tell the computer or router which part of an IP address is the network portion and which part is the host portion.
Subnet masks
In a _____ world, the routing updates carry subnet mask information and allow different masks to be used on different subnets.
The decimal number 192 expressed in binary is _____.
Although the base _____ numbering system seems foreign at first glance, largely due to the addition of letters, it really is an efficient way to express large numbers such as MAC and IPv6 addresses.
_____ is the version of IP currently deployed on most systems today.
_____ was originally designed to address the eventual depletion of IPv4 addresses.
_____ allows a single IP address to provide connectivity for many hosts and is widely used on networks of all sizes.
_____ is the most important layer 3 security protocol.
IPv4 networks rely on _____, which is inefficient because many hosts unnecessarily see and partially process traffic not ultimately destined for them.
_____ is a transition method that encapsulates IPv6 traffic inside IPv4 packets.
A series of documents called _____define, describe, and standardize the implementation and configuration of the TCP/IP protocol suite.
Request for Comments (RFC)
Before two computers can communicate over TCP, they must synchronize their _____.
Initial Sequence Number (ISN)
_____, also known as windowing is a method of controlling packet flow between hosts.
Sliding Windows
_____ broadcasts are broadcasts for any subnet and use the IP address
The purpose of _____ is to allow many IP subnets to be advertised as one.