50 terms

Chapter 11 A Patriot's History of The United States


Terms in this set (...)

Samuel Clemens
Aka Mark Twain, wrote Huckleberry Finn. Didn't like Missourians because they were violent.
Frederick Jackson Turner
wrote and essay called 'The Significance of the
Frontier in American History'. He believed it was the American Frontier that created a unique American society and not the Europeans. He also believed the West to be barbaric and violent. "Wild-west".
Pony Express
Before the completion of the transcontinental railroad. An era of private road building in the early
eastern frontier areas gave way to a willingness to use the state and national government to improve
transportation. Pony Express riders used these trails.
Travelers booked passage on stagecoaches
Meanwhile, sailboats and steam-powered
ocean vessels brought immigrants to the West via the coast of South America and hard-working
steamboats navigated rivers. After the railroad, all of these transportations were endured.
James J. Hill
Pacific Railroad had gone bankrupt and after 3 years, Hill bought it for a good deal. He later expanded the railroad.
4 foot 8.5 inches
national railroad track width standard without any involvement of government
vertical integration
the company owns all the various parts of the production process, from raw material to transportation to sales.
Texas longhorns
could thrive on range grasses without additional feeding, and those cattle proved especially resistant to the ticks that carried Texas fever.The resistance to the fever made the Longhorn a dangerous presence in the East where the ticks fell off and soon infected other nonresistant breeds, leading to an almost-uniform quarantining of Texas Longhorns prior to the mid-1860s
Joseph G. McCoy
Founder of Abilene, Kansas.made good on his pledge to Texas ranchers that if they would drive their Texas longhorns from Texas to Kansas through the Kansas Pacific Railroad and that he would have them shipped by rail to other markets and that the ranchers would receive a good price for their stock.
King Ranch
Ranch in Texas!
liquor, guns, and men nearly crazy from the boredom of the drive-> made cattle towns so violent!
Homestead Act
The Homestead Act made available land in the form of 160-acre grants to 400,000 individuals and families from 1862 to 1890
John Warne Gates
developed barb wire which became are standard fencing material on the treeless plains
Josef F. Glidden
made money from barbed wire
Jacob Haish
made money from barbed wire
conflict over land
whites vs. indian usually leads to a land treaty and then more misunderstanding and anger, and eventually a war, which always ended in Indian defeat. This, in turn, resulted in either the extermination or expulsion (farther West) of native Indian peoples.
Indians did not herd the buffalo, the very animal they most depended on. Buffalo parts came on the Market and the whites began to hunt them. The buffalo population went down and the ability for Indians to sustain themselves became more difficult.
Helen Hunt Jackson
Preservationist, who believed in leaving the Indians alone. Also author of 'Century of Dishonor'
leave the Indians alone
believed that Indians who violently resisted reservation confinement should be killed! Racist to Indians, and though they were wild.
Assimilationists argued that Indians must be put on reservations and cured of their nomadic ways for their own protection. The tribes had to learn English, embrace Christianity, and adopt the farming and ranching techniques of whites in the hope that they or their children might one day become working men and women in mainstream American civilization.
Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
Assimilationist, BIA planned for, governed, fed, clothed, medicated, and educated the Indians.
U.S. Army
Exterminationist, was charged with rounding up the Indians, relocating them to their respective reservations, and keeping them there if they tried to leave.
Buffalo Soldiers
companies of African American troops whom the Indians thought had hair like bison. The black soldiers greatly troubled the Indians
Chief Black Kettle
Chief Black Kettle led assaults on white miners, farm settlers, and travelers, but, weary of fighting,
he surrendered in November. Black Kettle accepted a tribal land outside Pueblo, Colorado, and
raised an American flag outside his tent, only to see his men, women, and children massacred by
drunken Colorado militiamen
Lt. Col. William J. Fetterman
"ride through the whole Sioux nation with 80 men," but Red Cloud and Crazy Horse annihilated his command in a precursor to the Custer massacre
Chief Red Cloud
let the party of Oglala Sioux
Crazy Horse
young warrior, and cunning, eccentric tactician
7th Cavalry
third force under General Alfred Terry that would attack from the Dakotas
Colonel George Armstrong Custer
underestimated the size, capabilities, and leadership of the combined Sioux-Cheyenne forces arrayed against him. Custer and all his men were killed
Little Bighorn
Custer and all his men were killed at the battle of Little Bighorn
Ghost Dance
Sioux performed in the desperate belief that dancing would banish the white men, return
Indian lands, and make Indians invulnerable to bullets and cannons because the were demoralized and turned to spiritualism
Wounded Knee
site of the Sioux Reservation in South Dakota. Subzero temperature there was a shooting that left many dead. This was a cold blooded massacre.
Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
where Indian reservations (with some exceptions) were divided into approximately 160-acre plots for male family heads, with lesser amounts to individuals. Indians had four years to select their land, after which the selection was made for them. Grover Cleveland liked this act! Tribal to landowners!
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
strong territorial governor, democrat, ruled with an iron hand because he was territorial governor, federal Indian superintendent, federal Indian treaty negotiator, and U.S. Army surveyor for the northern transcontinental railroad! Because of his authority, he was aggressive with Indians. He was unconstitutional and war broke out.
Brigham Young
led mormons in Utah! Mormons first came to Utah when it was Mexican owned but after americans took over, they didn't like mormon beliefs and threatened to kick them out. This led to the Mormon War.
William Seward
secretary of state, Alaska became U.S. possession when Seward negotiated to purchase all Russian claims north of 54 degrees latitude
Queen Liliuokalani
American settlers overthrew Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii and established a provisional government
Alfred Thayer Mahan
In keeping with the naval doctrines of Alfred Thayer Mahan, the projection of seaborne forces at long distances was crucial, and, therefore so was their refueling and supply. Hawaii, with its wonderful natural harbor, fit the bill
Granger Laws
Attempting to control railroad and grain elevator prices, maintain competition, and forestall consolidation, this was passed by the Patrons of Husbandry/Grangers/Farmers
Munn V. Illinois (1876)
Grangers achieved their greatest victory in 1876 with Munn v. Illinois, a case involving a grain elevator operator's fees
Knights of Labor
An early response to the issue of low wages came from the Knights of Labor. Wanted equality in workplace from whites, not Chinese or African-American.
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
Led by Big Bill Haywood, they published pamphlets, made speeches, and filled the
Spokane, Washington jail in peaceful acts of civil disobedience
currency used in American Civil War, farmers wanted to bring this back because wanted Inflation
Another more popular option, which appealed to miners as well as farmers, called for inflation by expanding the money supply through the augmentation of the existing gold coins with silver coins
crimes of '73
When Congress stopped the coinage of the silver dollar against the will of the farmers and westerners who wanted unlimited coinage of silver
Populism was born from this stiff opposition to gold and railroads, evolving from organizations such as the Grange (1867) and the Greenbacker Party (1876), then launched as a national political campaign in the 1890s.
James B. Weaver
populist presidential candidate 1892
William Jennings Bryan
populists and Democrats united to nominate William Jennings Bryan, a fiery,
thirty-six-year-old Nebraska congressman, for president 1896