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How many pts experience hallucinations during delirium?

3-15 years

What is the life expectancy after AD dx?

6-9 months

You assess your pt is currently safe to drive, when should you reassess?

acute onset/fluctuating behavior + inattention + disorganized thinking OR altered level of conciseness

What is the DSM criteria for delirium?

AD, Lewy bodies, vascular

List the 3 most common causes of dementia

after a few seconds it comes back

What is a hallmark of normal memory loss with age?

agitation, wandering

What are 2 symptoms of dementia that may get better with time?

change in level of consciousness

What is the first observable clue to delirium?

complex tasks, reasoning, spatial orientation, language

4 areas of learning/memory impairment in a demented pt

cortical hypometabolism in frontal lobes

What does a normal PET scan show in a pt with MCI?


Acute change in mental status which fluctuates throughout the day, accompanied by emotional disturbances and/or hallucinations

dementia with Lewy bodies

Pt's muscle tone is rigid, reports seeing snakes in his bathtub and frequently goes in and out of consciousness


What is the most common cause of pseudodementia?

deterioration in the evening

What is sundowning?

electrolyte/metabolic, infection, drugs/withdrawal, low perfusion

What is delirium caused by?


True or false: ACH inhibitors are effective in reducing agitation/psychosis in AD pts

false, there is no tx for MCI

True or false: once MCI is dx, AD or dementia meds should be initiated


2 tests which differentiate MCI, AD, normal aging?


Thiamine must be replenished anytime ___ is administered to a comatose pt

heart disease, EPS

What are side effects of using antipsychotics in AD pts?

hyperphosphorylated tau

What is the protein which creates tangles?

isolated memory impairment

What is mild cognitive impairment (MCI)?

Korsakoff's syndrome, thiamine deficiency

Pt lacks the ability to establish new memory, and instead often confabulate responses. What is this called and what causes it?


Name a cognitive function which is normal in delirium but impaired in dementia

loss of cognitive function beyond normal aging

What is dementia?

meds, EtOH, metabolic, tumor, hydrocephalus

What are some other causes for pseudodementia?

memory impairment + aphasia, apraxia, agnosia OR executive function disturbance

What is the DSM criteria for dementia?

muscle strength, mobility, hearing, visual acuity, cognitive function/attention

5 things to test for when assessing ability to drive in AD pts?

neurofibrillary plaques/tangles

FDDNP or PiB binding indicates what?

normal aging -> MCI -> dementia -> AD

What is the continuum between normal aging and AD?

normal pressure hydrocephalus

Pt is demented, cannot walk without losing balance and complains of bladder incontinence

notify pt and DMV

You determine your pt is unsafe to drive, what must you do?

Pick's dementia

Type of dementia which causes abrupt changes in personality?

refer for on-road evaluation

You determine your pt's driving ability is uncertain, what should you do?

severe impairment

Pt cannot walk, talk, smile, feed or groom themselves. Which stage of AD?

social, mental, physical activity

What are 3 protective lifestyle components against AD?

transient global amnesia

Pt has lost all retrograde and anterograde memory, do not know time or place but can recognize people. They keep asking the same questions over and over again.


True or false: delirium can last for months

true, R/O tumor, hydrocephalus

True or false: most pts suspected of dementia should receive a CT scan


Are pts with MCI aware/concerned about their memory loss?

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