Terms in this set (35)
Mostly Germanic tribes who invaded and sacked the Roman Empire; they later established kingdoms in Western Europe including France and England
Battle of Hastings
The decisive battle in 1066 in which William the Conqueror defeated the Saxons under Harold II and thus left England open for the Norman Conquest.
An outbreak of Bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons.
City dwelling merchants and artisans who formed the middle class; their name came from the German "burg", meaning "castle" referring to the defensive city walls within which they lived
800 CE crowned by the Pope as the head of the Holy Roman Empire, which extended from northern Spain to western Germany and northern Italy.
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
A code of behavior for knights in medieval Europe, stressing ideals such as courage, loyalty, and devotion.
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 CE undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
An alphabet for the writing of Slavic languages, devised in the 9th century CE by Saints Cyril and Methodius.
French legal body representing the Roman Catholic clergy, nobles, and commoners which evolved to advise the king and pass laws
An estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty.
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land.
Peasants who worked on the feudal manor, but were free to come and go as they pleased. Usually had a particular skill that was considered desirable.
A new innovation, the flying buttress, made it possible to better distribute the weight, eliminating the need for the heavy walls of Romanesque architecture. This allowed for many amazing stained glass windows that created a play on light inside the cathedral at different times of the day.
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people.
The Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian
Holy Roman Empire
A multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king.
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century CE. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code.
A codification of Roman law that kept ancient Roman legal principles alive, established by Justinian in the Byzantine Empire.
Hundred Years' War
Conflict from 1337 to 1453 between England and France for control of the French crown; it sparked a growing sense of English and French nationalism and the introduction of the longbow made heavily-armored knights obsolete
A mounted warrior who received honor and land in exchange for serving a lord as a soldier.
High ranking person who granted land to others in exchange for military support and loyalty.
A charter of liberty and political rights obtained from King John of England by his rebellious barons at Runnymede in 1215.
An economic system in the Middle Ages that was built around large estates called manors.
A way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith.
English legal body consisting of the House of Lords and House of Commons which evolved to advise the monarch and pass laws
European languages spoken in former parts of the Roman Empire which evolved from Latin including Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian
Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin and took Jerusalem.
A person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord.
Called First Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to mount military assault to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.
A person who received a grant of land from a lord in exchange for a pledge of loyalty and services.
A competition between knights to practice fighting skills during peacetime, including the sport of jousting
Centers of higher learning dedicated to the study of theology, law, and medicine
Common everyday language, as opposed to the use of formal Latin