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Music 111 Test 1

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PLAY
Music can be defined as
an art based on the organization of sounds of time.
The four main properties of musical sounds are pitch, dynamics, tone color, and....
melody
The relative highness or lowness of a sound is called
pitch
The ______ of a sound is decided by the frequency of its vibrations.
amplitude
Pitch is defined as
The relative highness or lowness that we hear in a sound.
The frequency of vibrations is measured in
cycles per second
In general, the smaller the vibrating element, the ______ its pitch.
higher
In music, a sound that has a definite pitch is called a
tone
A tone in music is a sound that
has an indefinite pitch
The distance in pitch between any two tones is called
an interval
If a pitch vibrates at 880 cycles, the octave below would vibrate at_______ cycles.
220
When two different tones blend so well when sounded together that they almost seem to merge into one tone, the interval is called an.
octave
When tones are seperated by the interval called an______,they sound very much alike.
octave
The distance between the lowest and highest tones a voice or instrument can produce is called
pitch range
Dynamics in music refers to
degrees of loudness and softness
Degrees of loudness and softness in music are called
dynamics
The loudness of a sound is related to the_____ of the vibration that produces the sound.
amplitude
A dynamic accent occurs in music when a performer
emphasizes a tone by playing it more loudly than the tones around it.
When a performer emphasizes a tone by playing it more loudly than the tones around it, it is called a
dynamic accent
When notating music for others to read, composers traditionally have used___ words to indicate dynamics.
Italian
The Italian dynamic markings traditionally used to indicate very soft, soft, and very loud are.(respectively)
Pianissimo, piano, fortissimo
The italian dynamic markings traditionally used to indicate very soft, loud and very loud are respectively
Pianissimo, forte, fortissimo
A gradual increase in loudness is know as a
diminuendo
Timbre is synonymous with
tone color
tone color is synonymous with
timbre
The abbreviation op. stands for opus, Latin for
work
It is difficult to sing well because_____ than in speaking.
-singing demands a greater supply and control of breath
-vowel sounds are held longer
-wider ranges of pitch and volume are used
The range of a singers voice depends on
training and physical makeup
While professional singers can command a pitch range of two octaves or more, an untrained voice is usually limited to about.
an octave and a half
Which of the following is not a normal classification of male voice ranges?
Contralto
Register refers to
part of an instruments total range
A part of an instruments total range is called a
register
The bow that strings players usually use to produce sound on their instruments is a slightly curved stick strung tightly with
horsehair
The strings of a violin are tuned
by tightening or loosening the pegs
Plucking the string with the finger instead of using a bow is called
pizzicato
Pizzicato is an indication to the performer to
pluck the string with the finger instead of using the bow
When the string player causes small pitch fluctuations by rocking the left hand while pressing the string down, it is called
vibrato
If a string player uses vibrato--rocking of the left hand to produce small pitch flunctuations--it is because
using vibrato make the tone warmer and more expressive
The very high-pitched tones that are produced when a string player lightly touches certain points on a string are called
harmonics
Rapidly repeating tones by quick up and down strokes of the bow is a sting technique known as
tremolo
Woodwind instruments are so named because they
Were originally made of wood
The highest woodwind instrument in the orchesta is the
piccolo
The lowest instrument in the orchestra is the
contrabassoon
A symphonic band
consists mainly of brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments
Symphonic Bands differ from symphonic orchestras in that they
do not contain a string section
Flute and piccolo players
blow across the edge of a mouth hole
A thin piece of cane, used singly or in pairs by woodwind players, is called a
reed
The english horn is neither English nor a horn, but a
alto oboe
The saxophone is
a single reed woodwind instrument
Which of the following is not a double reed instrument?
clarinet
Which of the following is not a brass instrument
english horn
The vibrations of brass instruments come from
the musicians lips
Brass instruments did not acquire valves until the_____________Century.
middle of the 18th
The_____is similar in shape to the trumphet, but its tone is more mellow.
french horn
A hollow, funnel-shaped piece of wood or plastic that brass players use to alter the tone of their instruments is called a
mute
Before 1850, french horn and trumpet players would insert____into their instruments to change the range of available pitches.
crooks
The_____are the only orchestral drums of definite pitch?
timpani
Which of the following is not a percussion instrument of definite pitch.
tambourine
The xylophone consists of a set of______bars that are played with mallets.
wooden
The piano has____keys, spanning more than 7 octaves.
88
The ____ pedal is the most important of the three pedals usually found on a piano.
damper
The____has strings that are plucked by a set of plastic, leather, or quill wedges.
harpsichord
The_____has many sets of pipes controlled from several keyboards, including a pedal keyboard.
pipe organ
The___is a keyboard instrument that uses vibrating air columns to produce sound.
pipe organ
Various sets of pipes on a pipe organ are brought into play by pulling knobs called
stops
The_____is a regular, recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time.
beat
The element of music defined as the ordered flow of music through time, or more specifically, the particular arrangement of note lengths in a piece of music, is
rhythm
The organization of beats into regular groups is called
meter
The first, or stressed, beat of a measure is known as the
downbeat
______ is defined as putting an accent in music where it would not normally be expected.
syncopation
The term____refers to the rate of speed of the beat of music.
tempo
The Italian term___is a tempo marking to indicate a moderately slow or walking pace.
andante
The italian term ___ is a tempo marking to indicate a lively pace.
vivace
Which of the following is the slowest tempo indication
adagio
A gradual slowing down of tempo is indicated by the term
ritardando
A_____is an apparatus that produces ticking sounds or flashes of light at any desired musical speed.
metronome
A____sign is used in musical notation to cancel a previous sharp of flat sign.
natural
Western music uses___letters of the alphabet to indicate pitch.
the first 7
A staff is a
set of five horizontal lines
In musical notation, pitches are written on a set of five horizontal lines called a
staff
A_____is placed at the beginning of a staff to show the exact pitch of each line and space.
clef
The treble clef is used for
relatively high pitches, such as those played by the pianist
By adding a dot to the right of a note we
increase its duration by half
In musical notation, silence is indicated by
rests
In the full score of an orchestal composition, the families of instruments are arranged from top to bottom in the order of
woodwinds, brass, percussion, strings
In a musical time signature, the upper number tells
how many beats fall in a measure
Melody may be difined as
A series of single notes which add up to a recognizable whole
A series of single tones which add up to a recongnizable whole is called a
melody
A melody is said to move by steps if it moves by
large intervals
The emotional focal point of a melody is call the
climax
Staccato refers to playing or singing a melody
in a short detached manner
A smooth, connected style of playing a melody is known as
legato
A short, detached style of playing a melody is known as
staccato
Legato refers to playing or singing a melody
in a smooth connected style
A part of a melody is called
a phrase
A melodic phrase ending that sets up expectations for continuation is known as an
incomplete cadence
A cadence is
a resting place at the end of a phrase
A resting place at the end of a phrase is called a
cadence
A melody that serves as the starting point for a more extended piece of music is called a
theme
A theme is
a melody that serves as the starting point for a more extended piece of music
Sequence may be defined as
the repetition of a melodic pattern at a higher or lower pitch
The repetition of a melodic pattern at a higher or lower pitch is caled
a sequence
____in music adds support, depth, and richness to a melody.
Harmony
The musical element that refers to the wa chords are constructed and how they follow each other is
harmony
Harmony refers to
The way chords are constructed and how they follow each other
A chord is
a combination of three or more tones sounded at once
A combination of three or more tones sounded at the same time is called
a chord
A progression is
a series of chords
A series of chords is called an
progression
A consonance is a combination of tones that
is considered stable and restful
A combination of tones that is considered stable and restful is called a
consonance
A combination of tones that is cosidered unstable and tense is called a
dissonance
A dissonance is a combination of tones that
is considered unstable and tense
When a dissoncance moves to a consonance, it is called a
resolution
Resolution refers to an
dissonant chord moving to a consonant chord
Dynamic tension that demands onward motin in music is usually the result of
The performers technical ability
The simplest, most basic chord used in western music is the
triad
The triad built on the first step of the scale is called
the tonic chord
Traditionally, a composition would almost always end on a
tonic chord
The dominant chord is the triad built on the_______step of the scale.
fifth
The triad build of the fifth step of the scale is called the
dominant chord
When the individual tones of a chord are sounded one after another instead of simultaneously, it is called a broken chord or
arpeggio
The keynote, or tonic, of a melody is the___of the melody.
central tone
The central tone around which a musical composition is organized is called the
tonic
key refers to
a central tone, scale, and chord
The sense of relatedness to a central tone is known as
tonality
Tonality is another term for
key
Another term for key is
tonality
In traditional western music, the____is the smalles interval between successice tones of a scale.
half step
Sharp of flat signs immediately following the clef sign at the beginning of the staff of a musical composition are called the
key signature
The word chromatic comes from the Greek word chroma, color, and is used in music to refer to the
twelve tones of the octave
Modulation refers to
a shift from one key to another within the same composition.
A shift from one key to another withing the same composition is called
modulation
Musical texture refers to
-how many different layer of sound are heard at the same time
-What kind of layes of sound are heard
-How layers of sound are related to each other
Momophonic texture consists of
a single melodic line without accompaniment
If a flute player were to play a solo without any other accompaniment, the texture would be
monophonic
The texture of a single melodic line without accompanimnet is
monophonic
Performace of a single melodic line by more than one instrument or voice is described as playing or singing in
unison
Polyphonic texture consists of
two or more melodies of relatively equal interest performed simultaneously
When two or more melodic lines of equal interest are performed simultaneously, the texture is
polyphonic
The technique of combining several melodic lines into a meaningful whole is called
counterpoint
When a melodic idea is presented by one voice or instrument and the restated immediately by another voice or instrument, the technique is called
imitation
Contrapuntal texture is sometimes used in place of the term
polyphonic texture
A round is an example of
strict imitation
A song in which several people sing the same melody but each singer starts at a different time is an example of
strict imitation
When harmonized by chords, Row, Row, Row your boat is an example of..
a round
Homophonic texture consists of
one main melody accompainied by chords
When there is one main melody accompanied by chords, the texture is.
homophonic
An example of homophonic texture could be a
hymn
Form in music is
the organization of musical ideas in time
The organization of musical ideas in time is called
form
Repetition is a technique widely used in music because it
creates a sense of unity
Retaining some features of a musical idea while changing others is called
variation
Forward motion, conflict, and change of mood all come from
contrast
When some feature of a muscial idea are change, but others are retained, the technique is referred to as
variation
A musical statement followed by a contrasting statement and then a return of the original statement would be called
ternary form
Three-part form can be represented as
-ABA
-ABA'
-Statement, Contrast, return
The form consisting of a musical statement followed by a counterstatement, would be called______form.
binary
A musical statement, followed by a repeat of that statement, then a sounterstatement, would be called____form.
binary
Bringing the printed symbols of a page of music to life is the job of the
performer
Embellishments are
Ornaments not printed in the music that seventeenth- and eighteenth-century performers were expected to add.
Improvisation is
music created at the same time it is performed
A virtuoso is a performer who has
developed an extraordinary technical mastery
The concert master in a modern symphony orchestra
sits at the conductors immediate left
The concertmaster in a modern orchestra
is the principal first violinist
Before the nineteenth century, the time beat was
give by the first violinist, the keyboard player, or both
Most of the conductors work
is done in the rehearsal
Many conductors us a thin stick called a_______ to beat time and indicate pulse and tempo.
baton
Beeps, clangs, whistles, never-ending gonges, and other effects can be added to music at a composers electronic whim through.
dubbing
In music,____refers to a characteristic way of using melody, rhythm, tone color, dynamics, harmony, texture, and form.
style
Changes in musical style from one historical period to the next are usually
continuous
Which of the following would be a good example of a change in music style.
The men in the New Yourk Philharmonic wear white tie and tails during the winter season, but for the summer concerts they wear black tie and white dinner jackets.
The Renaissance, as a stylistic period in western music, encompassed the years
1450-1600
The baroque period in western music is usually give as
1600-1750
Classicism, as a stylistic period in Western music, encompassed the years
1750-1820
Romanticism, as a stylistic period in western music, encompassed the years
1820-1900
We know little about the music of very ancient civilizations because
harldy any notated music has survived from these cultures