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Drugs and Behavior
Terms in this set (138)
neurotransmitter linked with cognitive processes and memory. Found both in the brain and in the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system.
The electrical impulse along the axon that occurs when a neuron fires
One of the most common forms of dementia among the
elderly; involves a progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. associated with nicotine
A lipid neurotransmitter mimicked by marijuana.
A substance that occupies a neural receptor and blocks normal synaptic
autonomic nervous system
Part of the PNS; has two branches: sympathetic and parasympathetic
A long cylindrical extension of the cell body of the neuron; conducts an electrical charge from the cell body to the axon terminals.
drugs that block beta-adrenergic receptors of the sympathetic system and thus act to relieve high blood pressure
The system that "filters" the blood before it can enter the brain.
central nervous system
the brain and the spinal cord
Hindbrain structure important in motor control and coordination.
the outermost part of the human brain
Spiny branch like structures that extend from the cell body of a neuron, typically
contain numerous receptor sites, and are thus important in neural transmission
a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved with movement and reward
Neurotransmitters in the brain that are mimicked by opiate drugs.
process by which neurotransmitters are
inactivated. enzymes interact with the transmitter molecule and change
its structure so that it no longer is capable of occupying receptor sites.
The largest part of the human brain; includes the cerebral cortex, thalamus,
hypothalamus, and limbic system.
Short for gamma-aminobutyric acid; the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in
An excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter
the lower part of the brain including medulla, pons, and cerebellum
a structure of the limbic system thought to be important in the formation of memories
forebrain structure that regulates eating, drinking, and other basic biological drives
fast receptors; coupled to ion channels
A chemical precursor of dopamine used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease
Forebrain structures including the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. Reward circuit
The lowest hindbrain structure of the brain;
important in the regulation of breathing, heart rate, and other basic life functions.
mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway
Pathway that is rewarding when stimulated
receptors that act through a second messenger system
part of the brain that includes the inferior and superior colliculi and the substantia nigra
A class of chemicals characterized by a single amine group; includes neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin
A fatty white substance that covers the axons of some neurons
Junction between neuron and muscle fibers where release of
acetylcholine by neurons causes muscles to contract.
Individual nerve cells that are the basic building blocks of the nervous
Chemical substances stored in the axon terminals that are released into the
synapse when the neuron fires. Neurotransmitters then influence activity in post-synaptic
A neurotransmitter in the brain that is also involved in
activity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system
Branch of the ANS that is responsible for lowering heart
rate and blood pressure
A disease that primarily afflicts the elderly and involves a progressive
deterioration of motor control.
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Sensory nerves, motor nerves, and the autonomic nervous
Hindbrain structure important in the control of sleep and wakefulness
Specialized structures located on dendrites and cell bodies for neurons that are
activated by neurotransmitters
One process by which neurotransmitters are inactivated. Neurotransmitter molecules
are taken back up into the axon terminal that released them
A neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved with sleep and mood.
produces dopamine. Damage to this area produces Parkinson's disease
sympathetic nervous system
Branch of the ANS that is activated during emotional arousal and is responsible for such physiological changes such as increased heart, respiratory rate, increased blood pressure, and pupil dilation.
Drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines that produce the physiological effects of sympathetic activity
junction between neurons
forebrain structure that organizes sensory input
tiny sacs in axon terminals that store neurotransmitters
a drug that works at the neuronal level to increase signaling by activation receptor, preventing reuptake, etc.
A drug that works at the neuronal level to decrease signaling by blocking the
receptor, increasing deactivation, etc.
the portion of the original drug dose that reaches its site of action, or that reaches a fluid in the body that gives it access to its site of action
blood brain barrier
A semipermeable system created by tightly packed endothelial cells
and astrocyte feet where some substances in the bloodstream are excluded from
entering the central nervous system
a more diffusible substance is more easily entered into, or "receptive" of, another
The transport of drugs by the blood to their site(s) of action in the body
The diminished or reduced effect of a drug when another drug is present
the minimum effective dose of a drug
the dose at which a given percentage of individuals show a particular effect of a drug
the most intense, or peak, level of a drug effect
occurs through direct excretion of the drug though the body or as a result of metabolism
the amount of time that must pass for the amount of drug in the body to be reduced by half
how drugs exit the body, most are done by the urine
when the effects of one drug are modified by the presence of another drug
the dose of a drug at which a given percentage of individuals die within a specified time
the process by with the body breaks down matter into more simple components and waste
the branch of pharmacology tha concerns the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and their mechanisms of action
the branch of pharamcology that concerns the absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion of drugs
effects of a drug other than those of central interest; used most often in reference to the other-than-therapeutic effects of medications, such as the side effect of drowsiness for antihistamines. note that what are considered a drug's side effects depends on what specifically the drug is being used for.
the ease with which a compound can be dissolved or entered into a solution
any enhancing drug interaction
a measure of a drug's safety in medical care; it is computes as a ratio: LD 50/ED 50
same dose becomes less effective over time
physical or psychological harm that a drug may cause
an inhibitory neurotransmitter that functions to promote sleep and suppress arousal
a synthetic stimulant based on the structure of ephedrine, reverse the transporters of dopamine and norepinephrine
causing one to lose appetite; suppression of eating
e a methylxanthine drug that occurs naturally in more than 60 species of plants;
primary mechanism of action is as an adenosine receptor antagonist
acute caffeine intoxication, includes feelings of lightheadedness,
tremulousness, breathlessness, headache, and irregular heartbeat
a naturally occurring stimulant found in coca leaves; blocks the reuptake of
dopamine, norepinephrine (and maybe serotonin) therefore functioning as an
indirect agonist to elevate synaptic levels of these neurotransmitters
a synthetic stimulant based on the structure of amphetamine but has an addiction of a methyl group which allows it to revers the serotonin transporter in addition to dopamine and norepinephrine
paranoid delusions and disorientation resembling the symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia, caused by prolonged use or overdose of cocaine and/or amphetamine
Pregnant women can take any drug without worrying about it impacting their developing fetus because the placenta forms a barrier that protects the fetus from any harmful substances. True or False?
The intravenous route of drug administration entirely bypasses the step of absorption? True or False?
MAO inhibitor (anti-depressant)
Nicoderm CQ patch (nicotine replacement therapy)
All of the may be involved in drug excretion except the
When a study involves any procedure or condition likely to cause more than short-term, low-intensity pain, discomfort, or distress, then appropriate anaesthesia, analgesia, tranquilization, and/or adjunctive relief measures should be used. True or False?
_________ are accountable for the care and wellbeing of animals used in their research and teaching activities.
Before deciding in favor of aversion or deprivation, investigators should consider consulting with animal care staff, laboratory animal scientists, _______________
experienced in working with animals in research settings
Researchers can use all of the following to determine proper sample sizes when using animals in studies EXCEPT ________
Efforts to bring the number of animals affected by the experiment to the lowest number of individuals necessary to achieve the aims of the experiment and statistical power.
Efforts to use nonanimal models and subjects, such as tissue cultures or computer models, wherever it is possible
Efforts to design and conduct the study as carefully as possible to maximize the scientific benefit while minimizing suffering to the animals
Nicotine withdrawal symptoms include irritability, depressed mood, restlessness, anxiety, problems getting along with friends and family, difficulty concentrating, increased hunger and eating, insomnia, and craving for tobacco. True or False?
Stimulates nAChRs to maintain a moderate level of dopamine release, which reduces craving and withdrawal symptoms during abstinence from smoking and also blocks the reinforcing effects of nicotine obtained from cigarette smoke in the case of relapse.
The principal action is believed to be the relief of craving and withdrawal symptoms when a person stops tobacco use.
nicotine - replacement medications
Increases brain levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, simulating the effects of nicotine on these neurotransmitters
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels. True or False?
Only tobacco that contains nicotine has been consumed habitually by people over long periods of time
Promotes compulsive use
Nicotine bad effects
Has psychoactive effects
Nicotine alters all of the of the following neurotransmitter systems EXCEPT _________.
Amphetamines were synthesized as an analogue of the naturally occurring stimulant __________.
Cocaine was once recommended to treat __________.
All of the following are effects created by sympathomimetic drugs EXCEPT ________.
Because amphetamine and cocaine act directly on dopaminergic transmission, they are likely to pack a much greater dopamine 'punch' than pleasurable environmental stimuli. True or False?
By acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist, caffeine elevates dopamine release and activates behaviour
Lower part of the brain, located just above the spinal cord; includes the medulla, the pons, and the cerebellum. Medulla oblangata: important in the regulation of breathing, heart rate, and other basic life functions. Pons: controls sleep and wakefulness. Cerebellum: important in motor control
Includes superior and inferior colliculi; substantia nigra. Inferior colliculi: part of the auditory system. Superior colliculi: controls localization of visual stimuli. Substantia nigra: modulates motor movements; damage to this area causes Parkinson's Disease.
cerebral cortex, thalamus,
hypothalamus, basal ganglia, limbic system. Thalamus: organizes sensory input. Hypothalamus: regulates eating, drinking, body temperature, aggression, sexual behavior. Basal ganglia: important to motor control. Limbic system: mediates memory and emotions
Anatomy of a neuron
Dendrites, cell body, myelin sheath, axon, synaptic knobs. When a neuron has a signal it will always start at the dendrites and travel to the right. If a neuron is activated (could be activated in dendrites) it will have received information that it will have an action potential (it will travel at the same strength and speed every time; always travel down the axon).
resides in the axon terminals of neurons that ACTIVATE SKELETAL MUSCLES. Involved in muscular diseases such as
myasthenia gravis, and brain diseases such as Alzheimer's. Excitatory. BRAIN TO REGULATE MEMORY. NICOTINE IMPACTS THIS
norepinephrine (noradrenaline), dopamine and serotonin; have been closely linked to mood states and emotional disorders.
Actually have something in our bodies that are like morphine. RELIEVE PAIN. help people feel better. mimicked by opiate drugs. EFFECTED BY HEROIN AND ALL OPIATES
Amino Acid Neurotransmitters
GABA and glutamate. Tranquilizers, alcohol and some hallucinogens act on these systems.
computed according to the recipient's body weight. Standard way of expressing dose: in milligrams of drug per kilogram of body weight. Some things if you take in minimal dose in can have low effects. If you take something in high dose in can have high effects. Example: caffeine
Routes of administration
site where drug is taken, or how it is taken. Chosen according
to the drug taken and the goals and
circumstances of administration. 4 types of administration.
Routes of administration: Oral
ingesting a drug by mouth is the oldest and easiest way of taking a drug
Routes of administration: Injection
injection of a drug bypasses the digestive process entirely and delivers the drug more directly into the bloodstream. (IV, Intramuscular, and sub q)
Routes of administration: Inhalation
Absorption of a drug through the lungs. incredibly fast - takes less than 8 seconds to reach brain. May cause irritation to lungs and throat.
Routes of administration: absorption through the skin or membranes
through the skin or membranes into the bloodstream. (snuffing, sublingual, suppository, transdermal patch)
Drug Response Cycle
drug absorption (the rate and extent to which a drug leaves its site of administration), distribution (drugs are absorbed into the blood and distributed to their sites of action), metabolism, and excretion are affected by different biochemical factors. these factors accentuate the complexity of each individual drug experience.
Dose effect curve
Used by pharmacologists as a standard way to graphically represent the relationship between drug dose and the size of an effect (effect is selected by researchers). slope = reflects how much the drug dose changes b4 the effect gets larger. efficacy = the most intense, or peak, level of a drug effect. Drug potency = the minimum effective dose of a drug.
effective and lethal doses
ED: the dose at which a given percentage of individuals show a particular effect of a drug
Lethal Dose: the dose at which a given percentage of individuals die within a specified time
Relationship between these two doses is essential information for medical and non-medical drug use.
a drug's harmful effects are referred to as its toxicity (acute toxicity is the physical of psychological harm a drug might present to the user immediately or soon after the drug is administered). a measure of a drug's relative safety for use. the margin of safety is the ratio of a lethal dose for 1 percent of the population to the effective dose for 99 percent of the population. M.S = LD1/ED99
Factors determining behavioral impact of drugs: Drug Interactions
combining drugs can also yield qualitative effects, meaning the type (and not just amount) of drug experience can be affected. it is essential to be aware of drug interactions in both medical and nonmedical use.
Factors determining behavioral impact of drugs: individual differences
some characteristics that can play a definite role in the effect of a drug include the individual's weight, gender, and ethnic background
when drug causes axon terminal to prematurely release the neurotransmitter; amphetamines affect dopamine and cocaine
makes receptor inactive. Caffiene for adenosine and Naloxone
the pH at which half the molecules will ionize (and become less soluble)
biphasic drug response curve
frown-y face graph
increase in the metabolism rate due to regular use of that drug
Adjustment of behavior/reactions through experience in using a drug to compensate for its effect
neurotransmission can decrease/increase because of drug
resistance to the effects of a substance because of exposure to a pharmacologically similar substance; barbituates and alcohol
ex) "im not even drunk right now"
personal responsibility model
Failure of self-control .
Treatment = Punishment, Religion, Death
Emphasis on the strong effects of the drug itself
Treatment = rid society of the drug, prevention
Drug use leads to irreversible chain of physiological events that produces a "loss of control"
Treatment = Treatment not punishment, abstinence, AA
Emphasis on genetic and physiological processes where genetic risk factors play a role
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