60 terms

Roman Art

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Head of a Roman Patrician
75-50 BCE
Marble
Roman Republic
Alexander Mosaic
100 BCE
House of Faun, Pompeii
Mosaic
Roman Republic
House of the Vetti
2nd c. BCE
rebuilt 62-79 CE
Pompeii, Italy
Cut stone and Fresco
Early Empire
Augustus of Primaporta
20 BCE
Marble
Early Empire
Ara Pacis
13-9 BCE
Rome
Marble
Early Empire
Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater)
70-80 BCE
Rome, Italy
Stone and Concrete
Early Empire
Arch of Titus
81 CE
Rome, Italy
Marble
Early Empire
Forum of Trajan
- Trajan Markets
- Basilica Ulpia
- Column of Trajan
Apollodorus of Damascus
106-112 CE
Rome, Italy
Brick and Concrete
High Empire
Pantheon
118-125 BCE
Rome, Italy
Concrete with stone facing
High Empire
Nabataean Ptolemaic and Roman
- Treasury
- great temple
Petra Jordan
Began 400 BCE
Cut rock
High Empire
Marcus Aurelius
175 CE
Bronze
High Empire
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus
250 CE
Marble
Late Empire
Arch of Constantine
312-315 BCE
Rome
Constantine
315-330 BCE
Basilica Nova, Rome
Marble
Aqueduct
an overground system that conveys water
ex. Pont du Gard
atrium
a courtyard in a Roman house or forum
ex. House of Vetti
Basilica
in Roman architecture, a large axially planned building with a nave, side aisles
ex. Forum of Trajan
Bust
a sculpture depicting a head, neck, and upper chest of a figure
ex. Head of a Roman Patrician
Cupola
a dome rising over the roof of a building; in architecture, a cupola is achieved by rotating an arch on its axis
ex. Pantheon
Dome
an arch rotated in space, 180 degrees; hollow interior
ex. Pantheon
Engaged Column
a column that is still attached to a wall
ex. Arch of Titus
Foreshortening
a visual effect in which an object is shortened and turned deeper into the picture plane to give the effect of receding in space
ex. Alexander Mosaic from the House of Faun
Impluvium
a rectangular basin in a Roman house that is placed in the open-air-atrium in order to collect rain water
ex. House of Vetti
Keystone
the center stone of an arch that holds the others in place
ex. Arch of Titus
Mosaic
a decoration using pieces of stone, marble, or colored glass, called Tesserae, that are cemented to a wall or floor
ex. Alexander Mosaic from the House of Faun
Perspective
depth and recession in a painting
ex. House of Vetti frescos
Linear Perspective
a mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface
ex. House of Vetti Frescos
Orthogonals
straight lines emanating from the vanishing point
ex. House of Vettii frescos
Vanishing Point
a point in the picture plane that is the intersection of the orthogonals
ex. House of Vetti frescos
Atmosphere / Aerial Perspective
the effect the atmosphere has on the appearance of an object as it is viewed from a distance (contrast decreases; colors become less saturated)
ex. House of Vetti frescos
Porphyry
the hardest known stone in antiquity, known for its purple-red hue denoting royalty
ex. The Tetrarchs
Spandrel
a triangular space enclosed by the curves of arches
ex. Forum of Trajan
Vault
a roof constructed with arches
ex. Colosseum
Barrel Vault
an arch extended into space that is curved at the top
ex. Colosseum
Groin Vault
two intersecting barrel vaults
ex. Forum of Trajan
Veristic
sculptured from the Roman Republic characterized by extreme realism of facial features
ex. Head of a Roman Patrician
Coffer
A sunken panel, often ornamental, in a vault or a ceiling.
Concrete
A building material invented by the Romans and consisting of various proportions of lime mortar, volcanic sand, water, and small stones.
Continuous narration
In painting or sculpture, the convention of the same figure appearing more than once in the same space at different stages in a story.
Cubiculum (pl. cubicula)
A small cubicle or bedroom that opened onto the atrium of a Roman house. Also, a chamber in an Early Christian catacomb that served as a mortuary chapel.
Damnatio memoriae
The Roman decree condemning those who ran afoul of the Senate. Those who suffered damnatio memoriae had their memorials demolished and their names erased from public inscriptions.
Domus
A Roman private house.
Fenestrated
Having windows.
Forum
The public square of an ancient Roman city.
Insula
In Roman architecture, a multistory apartment house, usually made of brick-faced concrete; also refers to an entire city block.
Oculus (pl. oculi)
Latin, "eye." The round central opening of a dome. Also, a small round window in a Gothic cathedral.
Patrician
The aristocratic families of Ancient Rome, including both their natural and adopted members.
Peristyle
In ancient Greek architecture, a colonnade all around the cella and its porch(es). A peripteral colonnade consists of a single row of columns on all sides; a dipteral colonnade has a double row all around.
Plebeian
The Roman social class that included small farmers, merchants, and freed slaves.
Rotunda
The circular area under a dome; also a domed round building.
Senate
Latin, "council of elders." The legislative body in Roman constitutional government.
Triumphal arch
In Roman architecture, a freestanding arch commemorating an important event, such as a military victory or the opening of a new road. In Christian architecture, the arch framing the apse at the end of a church nave.
Velarium
In a Roman amphitheater, the cloth awning that could be rolled down from the top of the cavea to shield spectators from sun or rain.
1) Fauces
Latin, "jaws." In a Roman house, the narrow foyer leading to the atrium.
5) Ala
A rectangular recess at the back of the atrium of a Roman house.
6) Tablinum
The study of office in a Roman house
7) Triclinium
The dining room of a Roman house.
8) Peristyle
In ancient Greek architecture, a colonnade all around the cella and its porch(es). A peripteral colonnade consists of a single row of columns on all sides; a dipteral colonnade has a double row all around. In Roman architecture, the colonnaded garden of a domus.
Compluvium
A space or opening in the roof over the court of a Roman dwelling, through which the rain fell into the impluvium or cistern.
Cistern
a reservoir, tank, or container for storing or holding water or other liquid