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One kind of parent-child interaction is especially important int he development of schizophrenia, the double bind. The double bind arises when 1. the child is emotionally dependent upon the parent and it is therefore extremely important for him or her to understand communications accurately and respond appropriately; and 2. the parent expresses two contradictory messages. The content of what the parent says may be the opposite of the message contained in tone of voice or facial expression, or the content itself may simply consist of two incompatible messages. The child cannot comment on the incongruous messages, withdraw from the situation, or ignore the messages. Caught in a bind from which there is no escape, the child uses 'crazy' thinking and actions to cope with this intolerable situation
The double bind notion thus proposed that psychotic symptoms were a form of adaptation to an impossible situation
The basic thesis is that the behavior and thought processes of people diagnosed as schizophrenic , indeed, seem crazy outside of the family context, but seen from the family perspective are not crazy or irrational at all. In fact, such behavior is just how a person might rationally react to such an environment
These hypothesized family influences could be conceptualized within the framework of social learning theory. Parents might model and perhaps reinforce disturbed communication and peculiar ideas; then punish attempts at interpersonal intimacy, 'straight' communication, and developing a distinct identity, ultimately forcing the child to withdraw in order to escape this aversive experiences
Suicide is by no means always associated with severe depression, but it is clear that a much higher proportion of individuals with diagnosed depressions commit suicide than in the population at large
As core symptoms for the mood disorders- or in association with substance use disorders, eating disorders, psychoses, anxiety, or personality disorders- emotions such as hopelessness and despair are often present in suicidal crisis.
Suicide ranks among the top 10 leading causes of death in the US.
Bipolar disorder was associated with the highest risk of suicide among male veterans, while among female veterans the highest risk was among those with substance use disorders
Males succeed at suicide at nearly 4 times the rate of females and represent almost 80% of suicide deaths
Although males complete suicide more often, females make nearly 3 times as many suicide attempts
Most males used firearms, while the most common female attempts involved poisoning.
Suicide rates are much higher among White and Native American/Native Alaskan males than other groups.
Age is a more significant factor in the likelihood of male suicide than female suicide. For white males, the risk of suicide increases throughout life, reaching its highest levels after age 65. In American Indians/Alaska Natives suicide is highest before age 25 and declines thereafter. Female rates show a decline after age 65.
The likelihood of suicide attempts drops as people move beyond middle age, but the risk of completed suicided does not