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Anthropology Exam 1
Terms in this set (84)
The study of human kind in all times and places
The belief that the ways of ones own culture are the only proper ones.
The systematic study of humans as biological organisms.
The study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data.
The study of human languages/The modern scientific study of all aspects of a language
The study of customary patterns in human behavior,thought,and feelings. it focuses on humans as culture producing and culture reproducing creatures. Also known as social or sociocultural anthropology.
The study of living and fossil primates.
The anthropological study of biological changes through time (evolution) to understand the origins and predecessors of the present human species.
The Great Chain of Being
The chain of being is composed of a great number of hierarchical links, from the most basic and foundational elements up through the very highest perfection, in other words, God. God sits at the top of the chain, and beneath him sit the angels, both existing wholly in spirit form.
Developed by Carolus Linnaeus. 18th century system of classifying things that were collected around the globe and brought to Europe. Classified based on:
-Sequence of bodily growth
The science of classification. Retain thee structure of the Linnaean system, but takes genetics as well as body structure, function, and growth into account to construct the relationships among living things.
Developed Systema Naturae. Linneaus classified living things into a series of categories that are progressively more inclusive on the basis of internal and external visual similarities.
In biology, structures possessed by different organisms that are superficially similar due to similar function but that do not share a common developmental pathway or structure.
In biology, structures possessed by two different organisms that arise in similar fashion and pass through similar stages during embryonic development, although they may have different functions.
The early 19th century theory of catastrophic, championed by French paleontologist George Cuvier, invoked the great flood describes in Genesis to account for the dissapearance of these species on European lands
Sir Charles Lyell proposed a non-religious theory to account for the variations in the Earth's surface. His theory was uniformitarianism. It proposed that immediately observable changes in the Earth's surface from erosion and other natural processes could account for variation in the Earth's surface if they took place over extremely long periods of time.
Traveled on the HMS Beagle where he went to the Galapagos Islands, Australia, and South America. Wrote "On the Origin of Species" in 1859. Basically came up with natural selection.
Theory of Natural Selection
The evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure, favoring some individuals over others to produce the next generation.
The law of segregation
The law of independent assortment
The law of segregation
The Mendelian principle that variants of genes for a particular trait retain their separate identities through the generations.
The law of independent assortment
The Mendelian principle that genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another.
DNA- the genetic material consisting of a complex molecule whose base structure directs the synthesis of proteins.
Alleles- Alternate forms of a single gene
Genes- The portions of DNA molecules that direct synthesis of specific proteins
The complete structure of DNA for a species
Otzi the Iceman
5,300 year old mummy found in the ice aged about 45. Most likely died from a brain injury.
A kind of cell division that produces new cells having exactly the same number of chromosome pairs, and hence copies of genes, as the parent cell.
A kind of cell division that produces the sex cells, each of which has half the number of chromosomes found in other cells of the organism.
Refers to chromosome pair that bears different alleles for a single gene
Refers to a chromosome pair that bears identical alleles for a single gene.
In genetics, a term to describe the ability of an allele for a trait to mask the presence of another allele.
In genetics, a term to describe an allele for a trait whose expression is masked by the presence of a dominant allele.
The alleles possessed for a particular trait
The observable characteristic of an organism that may or may not reflect a particular phenotype due to the variable expression of dominant and recessive alleles.
Mendel came up with these as a way to predict the genetic outcome of offspring.
Microevolution refers to changes in the allele frequencies of populations.
Four evolutionary forces:
2.) Gene Flow
3.) Natural Selection
1.) genetic drift- the chance fluctuations of allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population
2.)Gene Flow- the introduction of alleles from the gene pool of one population into that of another.
3.) Natural selection- The evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure, favoring some individuals over others to produce the next generation.
4.) Mutation- The chance alteration of genetic material that produces new variation.
An inherited form of anemia produced by a mutation in the hemoglobin protein that causes the red blood cells to assume a sickle shape.
Adaptations: costs vs. benefits
Sometimes a beneficial adaptation has costs. Sickle cell anemia helps prevent malaria, but also causes lifelong pain and suffering.
The gradual changes in the frequency of an allele or train over space.
Evolution above the species level or leading to the formation of new species.
The process of forming new species
Speciation through a branching mechanism whereby an ancestral population gives rise to two or more descendant populations
A sustained directional shift in a population's average characteristics.
A model of macroevolutionairy change that suggests evolution occurs via long periods of stability or stasis punctuated by periods of rapid change.
The group of mammals that includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers,monkeys,apes,and humans.
Primatologist who is world renound for her work with chimpanzees. Advocates for their rights.
Murdered in Rwanda. Extensive studies of mountain gorillas
Leading authority on orangutans.
Living in the trees
Teeth tell us about diet and how closely related species are to humans.
Complete three-dimensional vision, or depth perception, from binocular vision and nerve connections that run from each eye to both sides of the brain, allowing nerve cells to integrate the images derived from each eye.
A special form of locomotion on two feet found in humans and their ancestors.
Quadrupedalism or pronograde posture is a form of terrestrial locomotion in animals using four limbs or legs. An animal or machine that usually moves in a quadrupedal manner is known as a quadruped, meaning "four feet"
Moving from branch to branch using arms, with the body hanging suspended below.
Opposable thumb/Opposable toe
Having the ability the bring the thumb or big toe in contact with the tips of the other digits on the same hand or foot to grasp objects.
The suborder of primates that includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers
The suborder of primates that includes New World monkeys, Old World Monkeys, and apes (including humans).
A tail that has the ability to grasp
Great Apes/ Lesser Apes
In primatology , the ritual cleaning of another animal's coat to remove parasites and other matter.
Primate Behaviors: Clever Monkeys movie
a primate of a family ( Hominidae ) that includes humans and their fossil ancestors and also (in recent systems) at least some of the great apes.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago, roughly coinciding with the appearance of behavioral modernity and before the advent of agriculture. Modern humans
Anatomy of bipedalism: skeletal changes (6)
Foot- acts as a platform to support all of human weight
Hip- large ball and socket to support weight
Knee- enlarged to support weight
Limbs- increased leg lenght
Vertebral Column-s shape
Laetoli is a site in Tanzania, dated to the Plio-Pleistocene and famous for its hominin footprints, preserved in volcanic ash. The site of the Laetoli footprints is located 45 km south of Olduvai gorge.
Olduvai Gorge, or Oldupai Gorge, in Tanzania is one of the most important paleoanthropological sites in the world; it has proven invaluable in furthering understanding of early human evolution.
The genus including several species of early bipeds from southern and eastern Africa living between 1.1 and 4.3 mya, one of whom was directly ancestral to humans.
"Handy Human." The first fossil members of the genus Homo appearing 2.5 million years ago, with larger brains and smaller than australopithecines
Oldowan toll tradition
The first stone tool industry beginning between 2.5 and 2.6 million years ago.
"Upright human." A species within the genus Homo first appearing just after 2 million years ago in Africa and ultimately spreading throughout the Old World.
Acheulean tool tradition
More sophisticated tools than the Oldowan choppers. Hand axes had fine cutting edges, cleavers, hide skinners, defensive.
A distinct group within the genus Homo inhabiting Europe and Southwest Asia from approximately 30,000 to 125,000 years ago.
Mousterian tool tradition
The tool industry of the Neandertals and their contemporaries of Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa from 40,000 to 125,000 years ago
The hypothesis that modern humans originated through a process of simultaneous local transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens throughout the inhabited.
Out of Africa hypothesis
The hypothesis that modern humans are all derived from one single population if archaic Homo sapiens who migrated out of Africa after 100,000 years ago, replacing all other archaic forms due to their superior cultural capabilities; also known as the Eve hypothesis or the Out of Africa Hypothesis.
Race and associated concepts
In biology, the taxonomic category of subspecies that is not applicable to humans because the division of humans into discrete types does not represent the true nature of human biological variation. In some societies race is an importanr cultural category.
Adaptive complex: technology, dietary changes, bipedalism, use of fire
Hominins evidence: fossils and DNA
Biological determinism refers to the idea that all human behavior is innate, determined by genes, brain size, or other biological attributes. This theory stands in contrast to the notion that human behavior is determined by culture or other social forces.
the science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics. Developed largely by Francis Galton as a method of improving the human race, it fell into disfavor only after the perversion of its doctrines by the Nazis.
In biology, an adaptation, also called an adaptive trait, is a trait with a current functional role in the life of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection. Adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation.
A doctrine of superiority by which one group justifies the degrading of others based on their distinctive physical characteristics.
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