Upgrade to remove ads
History of Civ Midterm 1 Vocab
Terms in this set (84)
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation")is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Historians utilize both primary and secondary sources.
An urban society with a certain degree of complexity. First began around 3,000 B.C. Mesopotamia and Egypt are the originators of Western Civilization
Consist of 5 things
1. An urban Focus
2. System of religious beliefs
3. Political/ Military structure
4. Social structure based on economic power
5. Development or writing
Period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools.
2.6 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene around 10,000. "Old Stone Age"
"Human-like creatutes." Bi-pedal primates with relatively large brains. Earliest lived in Africa 3-4 million years ago. (Characteristics that resemble humans)
were a species or subspecies of archaic human, which became extinct around 40,000 years ago. Homo Sapiens.
Homo sapiens sapiens
The term anatomically modern humans, Most intelligent species. Came about 150,000 years ago. in Africa first. Hunters and gatherers. Built own shelters, caves. Nomadic. Cave Paintings. WHOOHOO GO ART.
Aka the new stone age. Was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,000-4,000 BC. Coincides with the end of the Last Ice Age. Agricultural Age. Developed farming and domesticated plants and animals.
Food Producing Revolution
Aka the Neolithic Revolution in ancient Mesopotamia. (10,000-4,000 B.C.... During the Neolithic Age) Domesticated plants and animals. Produced 50 times more food than before - so communities can become more populated. Surplus - now can share food
Allows for trade and specialization
Occured gradually over 6,000 years (parallel to the Industrial Revolution)
a very large Neolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.
One of the first Agricultural Communities (not civilations, but cities)
in modern turkey
population of about 6,000 in 32 acres
no streets, roads, or sidewalks, one entered from the roof, possibly for defense.
The site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. It has been identified as having "inspired some of the most important developments in human history including the invention of the wheel, the planting of the first cereal crops and the development of cursive script, mathematics, astronomy and agriculture." Considered to be one of the cradles of civilization, also known as the "[land] between rivers" Tigris and Euphrates. Fertile Crescent: from Jordan River to the Euphrates River. Land had access to water in the Neolithic Age.
Was the first urban civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages, Living along the Tigris and Euphrates,farmers were able to grow a surplus of Crops which enabled them to settle in one place. Used irrigation methods to control unpredictable waters. Harsh climate....
Around 2,500 B.C. or 3,000 to 6,000 B.C.
Costal cities. 12 major cities in region
Uruk city-state stuff
"true inventors of Civilization"
INVENTED THE WHEEL
3. Inventions (wheel: potter's wheel, wagon, chariot)
Massive structure of ancient Mesopotamian, and was a focal point of Religious life in the city of Ur. Built in 2,112-2,095 BC
center of cities, next to palace
2,000 sq feet, 120 feet tall
one of the earliest systems of writing, istinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed. "wedge shaped". Dating back to 3350-3200 BC
Epic of Gilgamesh
is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia. Dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur (circa 2100 BC), it is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.
Started as oral tradition.
of Ur was the second king of the "Sumerian Renaissance" in the Third Dynasty of Ur. He reigned from c. 2029 BC - 1982 BC (short chronology). His accomplishments include the completion of construction of the Great Ziggurat of Ur which was started by his father Ur-Nammu.
Sumerian "Renaissance" rooads, trade, ziggurats,
Law Code of Shulgi- not as complete as Hammurabi's
formed one culture/law
was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology). He was preceded by his father, He extended Babylon's control throughout Mesopotamia through military campaigns. Known for the Code of Hammurabi, one of the earliest surviving codes of law in recorded history. "King of Justice"
The Code of Hammurabi, Or Law Code of Hammurabi.
is a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology). one of the oldest writings of significant length in the world. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a seven and a half foot stone stele and various clay tablets. The code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" as graded depending on social status, of slave versus free man.
The Nile River
a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world It is 6,853 km (4,258 miles) long. The Nile is an "international" river as its water resources are shared by eleven countries, namely, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo-Kinshasa, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt. In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan.
Egyptians were respectful of the Nile, they thought of it as a divine and benevolent figure.
transportation, predictable waters, unlike the rivers in Mesopotamia.
is the name given to the period in 2686 BC-c. 2181 BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization - the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods (followed by the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom) which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley. Pyramids only in here.
or was the ancient Egyptian concept of truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality, and justice. also personified as a goddess regulating the stars, seasons, and the actions of both mortals and the deities, who set the order of the universe from chaos at the moment of creation.
the Great Pyramid of Khufu, Constructed 2580-2560 BC
The square pyramid, with square base and four triangular outer surfaces.
(Greek for "sacred writing") is a character of the ancient Egyptian writing system. Logographic scripts that are pictographic in form in a way reminiscent of ancient Egyptian stuff are also sometimes called the same.
the belief in the existence of one god or in the oneness of God. Also that he is outside of the Universe and not a part of.
is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based on the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language. Introduced to and changed by the Greeks in 750 BC to include Vowels After dealing with the Phoenicians during the Dark age.
A wandering People that moved in major waves for debatable reasons but messed up a lot of other people Cultures, Cities, and Thriving Civilizations.
a major Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East, existed as an independent state from 2500 BC-612 BC, spanning the mid to Early Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age.
Being Savages with strategic frightfulness through the display of mutilated bodies and or the immediate oppression or acting out towards their enemies or common folk who might eventually start an uprising.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire
was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC. During the preceding three centuries, Babylonia had been ruled by their fellow Akkadian speakers and northern neighbours, Assyria. A year after the death of the last strong Assyrian ruler, Assurbanipal, in 627 BC, the Assyrian empire spiralled into a series of brutal civil wars. Babylonia rebelled under Nabopolassar, a member of the Chaldean tribe which had migrated from the Levant to south eastern Babylonia in the early 9th century BC.
( 634 - c. 562 BC) was a Chaldean king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, who reigned c. 605 BC - c. 562 BC. Both the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the destruction of Jerusalem's temple are ascribed to him.
was a major city of ancient Mesopotamia in the fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The city was built upon the Euphrates and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods.
the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon. It was constructed in about 575 BCE by order of King Nebuchadnezzar II
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Traditionally they were said to have been built in the ancient city of Babylon. attributed the gardens to the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II, who ruled between 605 and 562 BC. There are no extant Babylonian texts which mention the gardens, and no definitive archaeological evidence has been found in Babylon.
imperial dynasties centered in Persia (modern-day Iran). The first of these was established by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC.
was an ancient highway reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great (Darius I) of the first (Achaemenid) Persian Empire in the 5th century BCE. Darius built the road to facilitate rapid communication throughout his very large empire from Susa to Sardis ("centralized rule is the victim of time and distance," Robin Lane Fox has observed in this context). Mounted couriers of the Angarium could travel 1677 miles (2699 km) in seven days; the journey from Susa to Sardis took ninety days on foot.
governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid (Persian) Empires and in several of their successors, such as the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
(Greek, literally meaning "The city of the Persians") also known as Takht-e-Jamshid (Modern Persian: literally meaning "the throne of Jamshid"), was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550-330 BC).
of the world's oldest religions, "combining a cosmogonic dualism and eschatological monotheism in a manner unique [...] among the major religions of the world."Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster (or Zarathustra), he exalted their deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda (Wise Lord), as its Supreme Being. Leading characteristics, such as messianism, heaven and hell, and free will are said to have influenced other religious systems, including Second Temple Judaism, Gnosticism, Christianity, and Islam. With possible roots dating back to the second millennium BCE,
Civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization that arose on the island of Crete and other Aegean islands and flourished from approximately 3650 to 1400 BCE. It belongs to a period of Greek history preceding both the Mycenaean civilization and Ancient Greece.[
was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece (c. 1600-1100 BC). It represents the first advanced civilization in mainland Greece, with its palatial states, urban organization, works of art and writing system.
the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and is considered Europe's oldest city.
January 1822 - 26 December 1890) was a German businessman and a pioneer in the field of archaeology. He was an advocate of the historicity of places mentioned in the works of Homer. Schliemann was an archaeological excavator of Hissarlik, now presumed to be the site of Troy, along with the Mycenaean sites Mycenae and Tiryns
was an ancient Semitic thalassocratic civilization of an unknown origin situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centred on the coastline of what is now Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Palestine, and Syria, though some colonies reached the Western Mediterranean and even the Atlantic Ocean. It was an enterprising sea-based civilization and spread across the Mediterranean from 1500 BC to 300 BC.
(ancient region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greek settlements. Never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period (600-480 BC), settled mainly the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea.
Homer (Ancient Greek: Ὅμηρος [hómɛːros], Hómēros) is best known as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey. He was believed by the ancient Greeks to have been the first and greatest of the epic poets. Author of the first known literature of Europe, he is central to the Western canon. which would place him at around 850 BCE or later.
The Iliad Ancient Greek: Ἰλιάς Ilias, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer. Set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy (Ilium) by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles.
The Odyssey (/ˈɒdəsi/; Greek: Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, pronounced [o.dýs.sej.ja] in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. It is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad, the other work ascribed to Homer. The poem is fundamental to the modern Western canon, and is the second oldest extant work of Western literature, the Iliad being the oldest. Scholars believe it was composed near the end of the 8th century BC, somewhere in Ionia, the Greek coastal region of Anatolia.
Mount Olympus is the highest mountain in Greece and the second highest mountain in the Balkans. Olympus was notable in Greek mythology as the home of the Greek gods.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, and intentions to non-human entities and is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology.
Oracle of Delphi
The Pythia commonly known as the Oracle of Delphi, was the name given to the priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi who served as the oracle. The Pythian priestess emerged pre-eminent by the end of 7th century BC and would continue to be consulted until the 4th century AD
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
Greek nationalism (or Hellenic nationalism) refers to the nationalism of Greeks and Greek culture. As an ideology, Greek nationalism originated and evolved in pre-modern times It became a major political movement beginning in the 18th century, which culminated in the Greek War of Independence (1821-1829) against the Ottoman Empire.
Polis, literally means city in Greek. It can also mean citizenship and body of citizens. In modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, and thus is often translated as "city-state".
An acropolis "highest", "topmost", "outermost" and polis, "city"; is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense.
The agora, was a central spot in ancient Greek city-states. The literal meaning of the word is "gathering place" or "assembly". The agora was the center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the city. The Ancient Agora of Athens was the best-known example.
Hoplites were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields. Their main tactic was the phalanx formation. The hoplites were primarily free citizens—propertied farmers and artisans—who were able to afford the bronze armour suit and weapons (estimated at a third to a half of its able-bodied adult male population). Hoplites generally received basic military training.
The phalanx, was a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons.
The Olympic Games were a series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states and one of the Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece. They were held in honor of Zeus, and the Greeks gave them a mythological origin. The first Olympics is traditionally dated to 776 BC.[
Sparta was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity the city-state was known as Lacedaemon while the name Sparta referred to its main settlement on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese. Around 650 BC, it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece.
Given its military pre-eminence, Sparta was recognized as the overall leader of the combined Greek forces during the Greco-Persian Wars. Between 431 and 404 BC, Sparta was the principal enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, from which it emerged victorious, though at great cost of lives lost. Sparta's defeat by Thebes in the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC ended Sparta's prominent role in Greece. However, it maintained its political independence until the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC.
The helots were a subjugated population group that formed the main population of Laconia and Messenia, the territory controlled by Sparta. Their exact status was already disputed in antiquity: according to Critias, they were "slaves to the utmost", Tied to the land, they primarily worked in agriculture as a majority and economically supported the Spartan citizens.
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years, and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennia BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, which had been a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A centre for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy, largely because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, and in particular the Romans.
A tyrant in its modern English usage, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or constitution, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty. And Political hero in ancient times.
The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia (modern-day Iran) and Greek city-states that started in 499 BCi[›] and lasted until 449 BC. The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC
Battle of Marathon
The Battle of Marathon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Μαραθῶνος, Machē tou Marathōnos) took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece. It was fought between the citizens of Athens, aided by Plataea, and a Persian force commanded by Datis and Artaphernes. The battle was the culmination of the first attempt by Persia, under King Darius I, to subjugate Greece.
A trireme Ancient Greek: literally "three-rower") was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans.[
Battle of Thermopylae
The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece. It took place simultaneously with the naval battle at Artemisium, in August or September 480 BC, at the narrow coastal pass of Thermopylae ("The Hot Gates"). The Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece, which had been ended by the Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. Xerxes had amassed a huge army and navy, and set out to conquer all of Greece.
Battle of Salamis
The Battle of Salamis was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC which resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks. The battle was fought in the straits between the mainland and Salamis, an island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens, and marked the high-point of the second Persian invasion of Greece.
The Delian League, founded in 477 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, members numbering between 150, 173, to 330 under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.
Pericles c. 495 - 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age—specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. He was descended, through his mother, from the powerful and historically influential Alcmaeonid family.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Look up ecclesia, ecclesiae, or ekklesia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Ecclesia (Greek: ἐκκλησία ekklēsia) may refer to:
Ecclesia (ancient Athens) or Ekklēsia, the principal assembly of ancient Athens during its Golden Age
the Latin term for the Christian Church as a whole
Ekklesia (think tank), a British think tank examining the role of religion in public life
Ecclesia College, a four-year Christian work college in Springdale, Arkansas
Ekklesia Project, an ecumenical Christian network to promote a more active and God-centered faith
Qahal or Ekklesia, a theocratic organisational structure in ancient Israelite society
A council of 400 male citizens established by solon in Greece in the sixth century BC
It served as an advisory body for the general assembly of all maile citizens.
Ostracism (Greek: ὀστρακισμός, ostrakismos) was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years. While some instances clearly expressed popular anger at the citizen, ostracism was often used preemptively. It was used as a way of neutralizing someone thought to be a threat to the state or potential tyrant. VOTE THAT MOFO OUT!!!
The Parthenon is a former temple, on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. Construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire was at the peak of its power. It was completed in 438 BC although decoration of the building continued until 432 BC.
A kouros a term given to free-standing ancient Greek sculptures which first appear in the Archaic period in Greece and represent nude male youths. In Ancient Greek kouros means "youth, boy, especially of noble rank."
Pythagoras of Samos; c. 570 - c. 495 BC)[ Pythagoras made influential contributions to philosophy and religion in the late 6th century BC. He is often revered as a great mathematician and scientist and is best known for the Pythagorean theorem which bears his name
Sophism is a method of teaching. In ancient Greece, sophists were a category of teachers who specialized in using the techniques of philosophy and rhetoric for the purpose of teaching arete—"excellence" or "virtue"—predominantly to young statesmen and nobility. The practice of charging money for education and providing wisdom only to those who could pay led to the condemnations made by Socrates (as he is portrayed by Plato in his dialogues) as well as Xenophon's Memorabilia.
Socrates 470/469 - 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. He is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Plato's dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple', Plato".
Plato, Born 428/427 or 424/423 BC
Athens, Greece was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. He is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy, especially the Western tradition. Unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporaries, Plato's entire œuvre is believed to have survived intact for over 2,400 years.
Along with his teacher, Socrates, and his most famous student, Aristotle, Plato laid the very foundations of Western philosophy and science.[
Aristotle, Born 384-322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child, whereafter Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. At seventeen or eighteen, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC). His writings cover many subjects - including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics and government - and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy. Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great starting from 343 BC.
Saul, according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first king of a united Kingdom of Israel and Judah. His reign, traditionally placed in the late 11th century BCE
David according to the Hebrew Bible, was the second king of the united Kingdom of Israel and Judah, reigning in c. 1010-970 BCE.[
Temple of Jerusalem
The Hebrew Bible says that the First Temple was built in 957 BCE by King Solomon. According to the Book of Deuteronomy, as the sole place of Israelite sacrifice (Deuteronomy 12:2-27), the Temple replaced the Tabernacle constructed in the Sinai Desert under the auspices of Moses, as well as local sanctuaries, and altars in the hills. This temple was sacked a few decades later by Shoshenq I, Pharaoh of Egypt
Israel, officially known as the State of Israel is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Kingdom of Judah was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant. The Hebrew Bible depicts it as the successor to a United Monarchy, but there is little debate that Judah emerged both later than and independently of the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria). In the 10th and early 9th centuries BCE the territory of Judah was sparsely populated and had few villages or significant architecture;
The period of Jewish history between the de-struction of Solomon's temple in Jerusalem by Bbylonian armies in 587 BC and 838 BC when Cyrus of Persia permitted Jews to return to Palestine and rebuild the temple.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
World History Big Era 3, World History Chapters 1-…
CHAPTER 2 : EAST EMPIRES AND THE REEMERGENCE OF CI…
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
World History unit 1 Savage
ancient greece study guide
HUM 2020 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Sherwin-Williams Interview Prep
Money and Banking Final Zoric
Midstream Marketing Interview Prep