Humanities Test 1 Questions
Terms in this set (150)
Why are the humanities in confusion?
It is hard to define what it is??
What makes a field of the Humanities a Humanity?
Creativity and connection to uniquely human experiences make a field of the Humanities belong to the Humanities. The reason science, for example, is not entirely considered to belong to the Humanities is because it largely concerns itself with explaining non-human aspects of the universe. Literature is easily considered a part of the Humanities because its main concern is the passing on of human expression through words and works.
What sort of rigor is possible in the Humanities?
Why is the issue of the Meaning of Meaning important?
Defining a term is not equal to understanding what a term in its entirety means. A single word can represent complex ideas that are difficult to define because of the varying "logical implications" and subjective definitions that word can have, depending on the context. With a humanities education, we will be able to see this multitude of meanings and the consequences of those meanings. Thus, we will know the importance of the clarifying meanings. I think this would allow for stronger opinions, richer arguments, and less misunderstanding.
Why are not all opinions equal?
Not all opinions are of equal value because some people's opinions are more informed than others. People who have a better understanding of the subject matter and are able to back up their belief or opinion through logical facts and evidence are likely to have a more compelling and stronger argument.
Why are the Humanities useful?
-record of thought
-question society and dont accept everything told
What criticisms of the Humanities are there?
-not provable, no definite answers, too philosophical
Why is Mythology so important to the Humanities?
For much of human history, (and very much today) people transmitted information and values in the form of stories which are like myths. Myths can embody a form of truth that is widely believed, and in fact can structure the beliefs of whole societies.
The processes of myth are always active because myths are basically stories. Stories have always been, and still are central to human thought today. Often a country's 'history' has considerable mythological content. Books, movies, politicians, advertisers, etc. often make reference to mythological notions.
What is Humanism?
Humanism is a term that celebrates the greatness of the human body, mind and thought, spirit, and choice. It especially stresses the goodness and beauty of humans. It also encourages thinking of and solving human questions and problems.
Humanism was created by the Greeks but the same idea can be seen or contrasted in many cultures, particularly through mythology and art. Humanism places more importance on humans than alien divine beings. For example, in Greek mythology, the Greek gods resembled humans. In contrast, Mesopotamian gods were monsterlike.
What sort of Truth can the Humanities provide?
How do art, religion and myth appear in the Paleolithic period?
In the Paleolithic there is evidence of burial practices and archeologists discovered small figurines. There were many depictions of animals in cave art.
What was the importance of the Neolithic revolution?
In the Paleolithic most humans were hunter-gathers, with no stable homes. The Neolithic revolution involved the discovery of agriculture. Agriculture allowed humans to settle down in one place permanently. In the Neolithic there were the first larger scale permanent settlements.
What technological innovations were made in the Neolithic Revolution? What social consequences did this have?
Technological innovations such as irrigation made it possible for them to practice agriculture. Tools related to agriculture were also created, such as plows, etc. The agricultural revolution allowed humans to settle down in large scale permanent settlements (cities/communities). Because of larger settled populations, more complex legal systems developed in the Neolithic. These systems revolved around ideas about property rights, inheritance laws, etc. There also arose a rich-poor class divide, between those who owned more and those who owned less. Questions about justice and the world around them became important.
Why were Mesopotamia and Egypt so important for early civilization?
What was the Mesopotamian view of Relations between humans and their gods?
The Mesopotamians saw the gods as powerful, whom they had no choice but to worship. Mesopotamian gods are not depicted as humanistically as Greek gods are, rather monster-like. The Mesopotamian gods were irrational and immoral in their behavior.
What are the main themes of the Epic of Gilgamesh?
What is Gilgamesh looking for? What does he achieve?
Gilgamesh is looking for immortality of his body and soul. However, he finds immortality when he returns to civilization and builds monuments that last beyhond his life time, even till today.
How is the Epic of Gilgamesh about the value of civilization? About excess and community?
What was so important about the code of Hammurabi? How did it show the complexity of society?
The code of Hammurabi defines matters of buying and selling, theft and assault, it defines matters of property rights and inheritance and marriage. It shows the complexity of society by leaving room for extenuating circumstances. Before, people probably took retaliation as they saw fit and there was no consistency in punishment.
How was Mesopotamia important for later Hebrew History?
Why is civil law so important?
What are some main characteristics of Egyptian civilization?
The village was the fundamental unit of Egyptian life. Historians organize. Egyptian history into Old, Middle and New Kingdoms.
What are some main characteristics of Egyptian art and Religion?
The outtook of the Egyptians was more optimistic than found in Mesopotamia. Egyptian kings were considered gods on earth, linked to Horus and Osiris. As different dynasties came and went, different gods became more or less important. The Egyptians created tombs such as the pyramids as a home for the body, which could be mummified. There was a form of Judgment in the Egyptian afterlife
Why was the Nile so important?
The Nile, providing a continuous source of water, and a channel for navigation, was central.
Why was Egypt so stable?
Egypt, surrounded by Desert, was less prone to invasion.
What was different about the New Kingdom?
The New Kingdom occurred after the expulsion of the Hyksos. The New Kingdom was bigger and stronger than the Old and Middle Kingdoms. In the New Kingdom Egypt opened up to influences from other countries.
How does the Story of Sinhue show aspects of Egyptian civilization and history?
What revolution is Akhenaton associated with?
Akhenaten introduced a form of henotheism, in which there are other gods, but one god is way above all other gods. Akhenaten tried to declare that the Sun-disk, the Aten, was the supreme god. Akhenaten's religious experiments did not survive him, and he may have been overthrown in a revolt. Later Pharoahs tried to erase Akenaten's memory
GREEK CRETE Q
GREEK CRETE A
What contributions did Cretan civilization make to early Greek history?
Minoan culture had a wide influence over the Aegean world. The typical Greek gods, such as Zeus were "born" on Crete, though the Minoans believed they were mortal. Later, the Myceneans changed the myth and made them immortal.
What was a Cretan palace like?
What are some basic features of Mycenaean civilization?
What was the aftermath of the collapse of Bronze Age civilization?
What might be the truth behind the Trojan war?
GREEK ARCHAIC Q
GREEK ARCHAIC A
What are features of early Greek Archaic civilization?
What is a Greek city state?
Why was the development of hoplite methods of fighting so important?
What caused the rise of the Greek tyrants?
How did the rich get richer and the poor get poorer?
What stresses caused political change in the Greek world?
How differently did Sparta develop?
How did modern Western democracy get its start in Greece?
What are some of the features of Athenian democracy?
How did Athens and Greece fight off the Persians, and why was that important?
What are the basic features of a Greek polis
What was the difference between Athens and Sparta?
What is the connection between Greek thought and Humanism?
ILIAD AND ODYSSEY Q
ILIAD AND ODYSSEY A
What, roughly, are the Iliad and the Odyssey about?
How do they reflect Homers time?
During Homer's time, there were major population changes. The kings just were local strongmen who could supply the protect their communities. In the Iliad and the Odyssey every town has a king. There were feuds between city states and the kings were being challenged, just like Odysseus was challenged by the suitors in his absence.
What is the quarrel of Agamemnon and Achilles about?
How are Hector and Achilles different figures?
Hector and Achilles are different heroes. Achilles is half-god. Hector is human, has a family, a wife and son, even his parents. One is fighting for society and one is fighting for personal gain. Hector is fighting to protect his home and his family. Achilles is fighting purely for glory. However, both will die for their honor.
What does Achilles seem to have learned by the end of the epic?
Achilles learns that the only way to come to terms with life is to endure it, not be excessive, and hold onto his humanity. He understands this when he mourns with Priam and loses Patroclus.
What lessons about social and individual life does it give?
The Iliad pits Hector and Achilles against each other. One hero (Hector) is fighting purely for the goals of society and the other (Achilles) for his own goals of glory. Achilles embodies the entire conflict himself as well. When he acts in excess, especially when he repeatedly refuses to fight because he has been insulted, he is jeopardizing the well-being of his society, and following his own desires and passion.
What special learning does Odysseus undergo?
How does the Odyssey discuss the issue of civilization?
How Odysseus a different type of hero than Achilles?
Achilles did not like trickery but Odysseus did. Achilles would not have been okay with the idea of the Trojan horse, which was Odysseus's idea. Achilles was hot-headed while Odysseus was a clever and great thinker. They also led very different lives and had different attitudes about life and death. Achilles preferred a short life, dying in battle, and being remembered with honor. Odysseus lived a long, quiet peaceful life after the war.
How does Odysseus restore order at home
How is he like and different from Gilgamesh?
Odysseus gains the chance to be immortal, have a glorious and exciting life but he gives it up to resettle in his home in Ithaca. They both return home.
How is the outlook of the Odyssey different from that of the Iliad? How is the Odyssey more concerned with justice?
Why is the study of history such an important portion of the humanities?
Why does every field have a historical dimension?
In what way was early history more like myth?
Why does using explanations involving Gods or curses or Fate shut down proper historical investigation?
How do Herodotus and Thucydides try to separate what is mythical from what is more factual?
What sort of processes did historians look at to provide evidence of how history works?
What sort of evidence is able to be established and examined?
What is cultural relativism and to what extent does Herodotus engage in historical relativism?
How is Herodotus something of an anthropologist?
How is Herodotus still influenced by concepts such as fate or destiny or divine wrath?
What was the relationship of Thucydides to Pericles?
How does Thucydides try to explain the early evolution of Greece through sea power?
How does he try to find concrete causes for the long time it took the Greeks to take Troy?
What are the weaknesses he sees in democratic Athens that caused Athens to lose that war?
What are some problems Thucydides sees in writing history?
How does the Funeral Oration of Pericles show the ideal of Athenian liberal culture?
How does it show them being different from the Spartans and other Greeks?
How does the Plague at Athens show the weaknesses and circumstances which caused the Athenian defeat.
What is Epic, and how is drama different from Epic?
Drama evolved out of ritual about the god Dionysus. They also give a sense of awe to the audience who witness the chanting and other parts of the performance. Epics are much more wide-ranging in their stories, themes, and characters, in contrast to dramas which are more focused on a specific story.
Why is drama associated with Dionysos?
Dionysos was the god for whom tragedy was performed in Athens. Early Greek theater was concerned with performing the story of this god. Greek drama grew out of chorus singing the sorrows of Dionysos. Dionysos was a god who had been persecuted and suffered, and thus one with whom humans could identify more.
How does tragedy deal with the great issues of society?
The notion of tragedy is an important concept because it is all around us. People are constantly having to choose between a lesser of two evils, or equally important social rules.
It helps us deal with the inevitability of tragedy and that what comes about is not really our fault. It gives us comfort that we could not have prevented what transpired, no matter what decision we make.
What are the basic issues in Euripides' Hippolytos?
How do the gods behave in that play? Why does Euripides show Gods behaving badly?
The gods do not represent a good moral standard or care for humans. Aphrodite did not care that Phaedra and Theseus would become collateral damage in her scheme to bring about Hippolytus's downfall. Artemis also did not come to Hippolytus's aid, even though he had devoted his life to her.
Because of the way Euripides writes these gods, his belief in the gods is questionable. Although he probably does not deny the existence of the gods, his views do seem to align with those of the Sophists, his contemporaries, who were challenging those beliefs. Like Plato and others, he saw humans creating beliefs and stories about the gods which projected their own human evils, not the virtues of the gods.
What is wrong and right with Hippolytos?
What are the problematical family histories of both Phaedra and Hippolytus?
What has made Hippolytus cut off from people and lacking in sympathy and moral imagination.
How is he excessive? What causes his destruction? What is he trying to repress?
He is excessive in his isolation and distance from society. He makes no effort to sympathize or connect with common people. He is excessive as he scorns marriage and sex, and insults Aphrodite. This causes his destruction when she becomes angered. He is trying to repress his sexuality.
What sort of knowledge does he gain at the end?
Hippolytus comes to terms and forgives his father. He reenters the human community by finally having to face his conflicts about sexuality.
He gains an increased ability to understand (and even pity) the human condition.
How does the sufferings of Phaedra show the problems of knowledge and free will.
The tragedy of Phaedra is that she is undermined by a force more powerful than she.
How does the Nurse ruin her - and how does Phaedra cooperate in that ruining?
When Phaedra is questioning the Nurse about the nature of the cure, she shows her worry that the Nurse will betray her by telling Hippolytus her terrible secret, which suggests that Phaedra knows at some level that the Nurse intends to tell Hippolytus what she cannot bring herself to say to him. Thus, by ignoring what she really knows, she has in effect given in to the temptation offered by the Nurse.
The Nurse never gets Phaedra to agree to let her approach Hippolytus and tell him he should hook up with Phaedra, but it can be argued that Phaedra allows herself to be tricked by the Nurse, who will approach Hippolytus and suggest he hook up with Phaedra, suggesting that, at some level, Phaedra has given into the idea of having sex with her stepson, which would have been thought of as a great evil.
Describe the character of Phaedra.
What is wrong with Theseus and how is he excessive?
What sort of monsters did Theseus once destroy?
What sort of person does he think Hippolytus is even before he gets Phaedra's letter.
How does Euripides explore human psychology?
Hippolytus, on the level of psychological interpretation, is about a young man who will not or cannot come to terms with adult sexuality
How does it show the influence of the sophists and philosophers of Athens?
Hippolytus, when implying he will reveal the secret, says he swore with his lips but not with his mind, which shows that sort of Sophistic reasoning that Euripides was influenced by. Although he probably does not deny the existence of the gods, his views do seem to align with those of the Sophists, his contemporaries, who were challenging those beliefs.
How do father and son come to understand each other at the end?
Theseus comes to understand the true nobility of his son. As he dies, Hippolytus pities his father.
What is the problem with the role of Artemis? Why does she leave?
Artemis wants to clear the dying Hippolytus' name. Artemis tells Theseus the full truth of the lust of Phaedra because of Aphrodite. The fact that Artemis leaves father and son alone suggests a very humanistic theme, that it is as individuals we must come to terms with each other, face to face, emotion to emotion, in a human, not divine connection.
What does Phaedra manage to teach Hippolytus?
By the end he can feel the terrible shame that the somewhat innocent Phaedra felt, Hippolytus gains, although at the point of death, an increased ability to understand (and even pity) the human condition.
Know what questions drive philosophy's origins
Why is philosophy important for asking questions more than answering them?
Philosophy increases our knowledge that even the simplest concepts and ideas are actually complicated. It also makes sure that we logically think about the world around us. It also keeps us wondering and testing the limits of the world around us. For example, if we did not wonder about electricity, or the nature of the world around us, or morality we would not have the knowledge we do today.
What does Thales try to explain about the universe that myth cannot?
What was Thales getting at in his views about water?
Thales thought the universal element was water.
What does Heracleitus think is permanent?
Heraclitus thought process was what was lasting, not substance.
Understand what materialism is and how it is the opposite of idealism.
How can process be more permanent, more real than content?
Know what idealism believes is really permanent.
Know how Pythagoras is an idealist and what he believes about numbers.
Pythagoreanism, Platonism and later-Neo Platonism saw mathematical forms often as underlying material reality in this world.
Know how the Sophists developed new ways of more precisely analyzing and speaking about matters as well as tricky ways and how this led to a questioning of traditional ways of thinking.
Know what the Sophists contributed to the question of the Meaning of Meaning
Know how Socrates uses many of the methods of the Sophists but he believed by the process of close questioning one could really find truth proving it somewhat in the way that one proves geometric theorems.
Know how Socrates seem to believe that to REALLY know the truth is to do the truth - and how Euripides seem to reject this (see above).
Know how Socrates was condemned in part because his form of questioning seemed to undermine society not to mention that two of Socrates' students were traitors to Athens.
Know how Plato is a dualist who sees the immortal soul trapped within and in battle with the body. Know how Plato is an idealist and what the Platonic forms are.
Know how in the Republic Plato sets out to figure out what justice is (= harmony) and how Plato thinks the rulers of his ideal Republic must have an education which what they are allowed to read is censored.
Know how Plato sees the soul as having three parts (appetite spirit and reason) and how these three parts of the soul correspond to the three classes of people in Plato's republic (Philosopher Kings = rationalitym Guardians = spirit and common people = the appetites) and how justice in city is a harmony where every class of person does what he or she is best suited for.
Understand then why Plato does not believe in democracy.
For Plato, Democracy makes no sense, because most people do not have the knowledge to govern properly.
Know how in the Phaedo Plato shows how death can be better than life for it frees the soul.
For Socrates in the Phaedo, the mortal body blocks the ability of the soul to see perfect truth. For Socrates, the life of the philosopher is a kind of living preparation for death. Death is a "liberation" of the soul. After being freed from a mortal body, it can rejoin the other ideal forms in the realm of forms. Then it will once again know pure truth.
Know about Aristotle whose father was a doctor while he was also something of an idealist was also a believer in collecting data and breaking it down in analysis to find general rules.
Know how Aristotle did not believe in the Forms how he believed that everything has an innate purpose or final form.
While Aristotle did not believe the existence of the Platonic Forms, he did seem to think that each object (let us say a chair) was driven to attain its ideal form or function (its end, or telos) and this end was sort of like a form that the material embodied.
Know how (roughly) Aristotle applies his analytical method to the study of Tragedy and why he believes plot is more important than character.
Know how Aristotle's methods of classification contributed to modern research methods.
It allows one to reanalyze the problem and look at it differently and in a simpler manner. With division, one reduces the objects of interest into their most important traits. With collection, one reorganizes objects based on their traits.
Note the down-side of breaking an idea into parts, a practice which an allow people to reduce people to abstracted notions of real people, as we think of living workers as so many 'man-hours' or slaves merely as 'living tools.' Again note how Aristotle likes to break down problems into parts.
Reductionism is useful because it allows us to understand the simplest aspects of an issue, and perhaps build up from there. Analyzing the simple parts of a complex issue is a good start.
Also know about Aristotle's' contribution to Logic.
Know how Aristotle's ethics depends on a mean between extremes.
Know how Aristotle sometimes uses biological arguments such as justifying slavery based on biology, the idea that some people are born to rule, and others to serve.
Aristotle, being very interested in biology, and having noted that different breeds of animals, such as dogs and horses, differ greatly in intelligence, such as, for example, border collies vs. beagles, suggests people likewise differ in this way. often compares humans to animals and admits both are alike in certain ways. gave a biological basis for racism and sexism.
Note how Aristotle does not need to invoke gods to explain the creation of society, but provides a materialistic explanation, that people come together first to have children, then to survive, and then to have a good life, because people need each other.
Note too how Aristotle calls people 'political animals' because, while we are biologically animals, we have the ability to do politics, that is reason about good and evil and right and wrong.
Know how the philosophies of Cynicism Epicureanism and Stoicism offered different ways of finding peace of mind in a turbulent world, by trying to find a way to live according to nature.
GREEK HISTORY Q
GREEK HISTORY A
Know how mystery religions which promised a more intense religious experience also grew in the Hellenistic world. ,
They were introduced to mystery religions in their multicultural world, which featured secret rites and such. There were Eastern religions as well.
Know about the chaos of the early 4th century until Philip II of Macedon conquered the traditional Greek world.
Know about the accomplishments of Alexander the Great, his great conquests and how his empire broke up into the Successor States and how those states battled until mostly absorbed by Rome and Parthia (= the Persians).
He founded and conquered many cities, even in non-Greek areas.
Know now traditional city state was obsolete and the loss of democracy.
A classical Greek city state was a small scale, independent city with a homogeneous population. But in this era of Greek colonization and expansion, vast resources and constant wars, it became obsolete.
CLASSICAL GREEK & HELLENISTIC ART AND CULTURE Q
CLASSICAL GREEK & HELLENISTIC ART AND CULTURE A
Know the mixed population of the great Hellenistic cities and how they helped spread and expand and make more diverse Greek culture.
Alexander's conquest of so many places, non-Greek and Greek cities became mixed.
High Classical Art
Hellenistic art often showed scenes which would have seemed low-life or undignified to a Classical Greek audience. Hellenistic art often showed figures with exaggerated, distorted muscles, hair, poses. wide range of styles, subject matter and effects it demonstrates.. Hellenistic art often could be more frankly erotic than Classical Greek art.
motion, dynamic drama in cloth, exaggerated pose, pathos
Know about Alexandria and the Ptolemies and the Museum and Library and the literary style of Alexandrianism in which poetry and literature is produced which written for the highly educated.
People preferred to imitate Hellenic predecessors rather than create their original works. The writers that worked from Alexandria perfected a literarary style called Alexandrianism. They showed off their knowledge of Greek and exotic myths, litarary figures and history, exotic literary figures and mastery of the Greek language.
Know how Theocritus develops pastoral poetry as well as writes idylls which give vivid scenes of daily life and love.
Pastoral poetry is rather sophisticated poetry about life and loves of shepherds in the ideal countryside. Pastoral poetry is for city-dwellers, not for the inhabitants of the countryside.
Know how Idyll 14, 'Aeschines and Thyonichus" give us a somewhat sordid picture of daily life and passion, and the personal life of a young man, as well as some praise for Theocritus' patron, Ptolemy.
Know how Idyll 15, on the Festival of Adonis, which also shows a vivid picture of family life of two elite women, the multicultural stew of Alexandria, and the adoration of the foreign cult, that of Adonis, and the culture power of the Ptolemies.
Know how the Jason of Apollonius' epic is something of an anti-hero, who succeeds by getting others to do his work for him and seducing women, and how his quest turns out badly.
Know how many of the Hellenistic kings paid for art and artists to enhance their glory.
To show they were good greeks, to show off power and wealth. They needed to establish their legitimacy because they were in charge of mercenaries.
Know how the new Hellenistic cities made the traditional Greek polis obsolete and how Greek culture came into contact with foreign influences.