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Terms in this set (21)
accumulation of excess liquid in tissue
Causes of edema
increased filtration, reduced reabsorption, or blockage of lymph
failure of the right ventricle so pressure builds up in systemic capillaries with increased fluid forced into systemic tissues
failure of the left ventricle so pressure builds up in pulmonary capillaries with increased fluid forced into lung tissues
What does systemic edema cause
What does pulmonary edema cause
Mechanisms of venous return (how does blood get returned to the heart through the veins?)
gravity, skeletal muscle movement, expanding atrial space sucking blood inside, greater pressure in venules than the right atrium, thoracic pump helps blood in the inferior vena cava move upward
does exercise increase or decrease venous return?
Why does exercise increase venous return?
blood vessels dialate as to increase flow, heart beats faster to increase BP, respiratory rate is increased increasing action of thoracic pump, skeletal muscle pump is increased with movement
What happens to venous return with inactivity?
Slows down and venous pooling occurs
Perfusion of the capillaries in the brain
kept constant; this is important because the brain without blood for seconds can cause unconciousness and brain without blood for minutes can cause irreversible brain damage.
How does the brain respond to changes in blood pressure?
when BP goes up, brain arteries constrict so there is not an overflow of blood. When BP goes down, brain arteries dialate so that enough blood can get to the brain
What is hypercapnia
increased CO2 in the brain
What does hypercapnia (increased CO2) cause in the brain?
Increased CO2 in the brain causes pH to lower, which triggers local vasodilation
What is hypocapnia?
decreased CO2 in the brain
What does hypocapnia cause?
Decreased CO2 in the brain causes increased pH, which causes local vasoconstriction
What is it called when the brain responds to systemic blood pressure by local vasoconstriction and vasodilation?
Do muscles have a variable blood flow?
Yes, highly. it depends on the exertion produced
Characteristics of circulation in skeletal muscles at rest
Arterioles are constricted, and the total blood flow is very low
Characteristics of circulation in skeletal muscles during exercise
Arterioles are dilated (due to epinephrine and sympathetic nerves), precapillary sphincters are dialated (due to lactic acid and CO2)
Characteristics of pulmonary circulation
low blood pressure, low capillary hydrostatic pressure, slower flow (more time for gas exchange), colloid osmotic pressure overrides hydrostatic pressure (keeps fluids out of lungs)
This set is often in folders with...
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