30 terms

Biology 1101 - Exam 1

Ohio State University. Columbus, OH Campus Biology 1101 - Dr. Smock. Spring 2013

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List the 5 Characteristics of Living Things
Organized specifically, need and acquire energy, maintain internal constancy, reproduce grow develop, evolve over time (adaptation)
What is homeostasis? and why is it important?
State of internal constancy. Essential for life.
Define adaptation. What is its effect on survival and reproduction?
Inheritive characteristic that enables an organism to successfully survive and reproduce. Best adaptation to CURRENT environment = best chance for survival + reproduction.
Describe the scientific method process. (observation to conclusion)
Make observations, ask a question, form a hypothesis, prediction, design & conduct experiment, analyze results, draw conclusions.
Define "theory" and "hypothesis", Include difference in definitions.
Theory - well substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world. Hypothesis - tentative, often narrow explanation regarding the natural world. Also,,, Hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable. Theory is a unifying explanation.
How do atoms link together?
Through chemical bonds. 2 or more chemical bonds makes a molecule.
Define: "atom", "element". List the subatomic particles.
Atom - smallest component of an element. Element - pure substance that can't be broken down chemically. Protons, Neutrons, Electrons.
How do electrons determine chemical bonds? Describe covalent bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds.
Octet rule: atoms look to stable themselves with 8 electrons in outer valence shell. Full shell = no reactions.

Covalent bonds - nonpolar covalent has atoms with equal electronegativity. Polar covalent has an unequal sharing of electrons.

Ionic bond - 2 oppositely charged ions that involves a "stealing" of electrons.

Hydrogen bond - weak form of attraction between two atoms or ions with opposite partial charges.
Define "cohesion". Why does ice float?
Cohesion - property of water, as a result of hydrogen bonds, that causes molecules of water to stick together easily. Ice has a lower temperature causing its molecules to slow down and eventually lock causing the density to lower. result is floating.
Define "hydrophilic" and "hydrophobic".
Hydrophilic - substances that dissolve in water. (water-loving).
Hydrophobic - substances that do not dissolve in water. (water-loving)
Organic molecules always include which two elements?
C (carbon) and H (hydrogen)
What are the four main types of organic molecules?
Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins.
What is the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates? How do living things use carbs?
Simple carbohydrates are sugars like glucose while complex carbs are bonds of simple sugars. Simple carbohydrates have a quick-but-brief increase in blood sugar. Complex carbs have a slow-but-persistent increase in blood sugar.

Living things use carbs by burning them for energy when needed, or storing them short-term (links to make glycogen) or long-term (converted to fat).
What is the difference between unsaturated and saturated fats? What is "hydrogenated"?
Unsaturated fats have double bonds as a result of some carbon atoms being bound to just one hydrogen. This makes them liquid at room temperature. Saturated fats have two hydrogens for each carbon. They are solid at room temperature and "saturated with hydrogens".

Hydrogenated is artificially adding hydrogens to unsaturated fats to improve a food's taste, texture, and shelf-life
Which of the types of organic molecules has the most functions? What is the relationship between shape and function for that type?
Proteins. The proteins overall shape is what determines its function.
What are the two main types of nucleic acid? What makes up a nucleotide?
DNA and RNA. Nucleotide is made up of a 5-C sugar (deoxyribose for DNA, ribose for RNA), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous group (G,C,T,A - DNA. G,C,U,A - RNA).
What is the most basic unit of life?
Cells. Everything organisms do reflect processes at the cellular level.
What 6 traits do all cells have in common?
Membrane as a boundary, DNA as genetic material, RNA for protein synthesis, ribosomes for protein manufacture, organelles that do the cell's work, cytoplasm.
What is the "phospholipid bilayer" a key part of in a cell?
Cell membrane. Hydrophilic heads extend towards intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid and hydrophobic tails are repelled by these fluids.
Why are cells "small by necessity"?
They exchange nutrients and wastes through cell membrane. Large surface area to volume ratio meets the cell's needs.
What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? What is the division of labor within eukaryotes?
Prokaryotes - no nucleus, no organelles
Eukaryotes - nucleus, organelles

Prokaryotes are like a warehouse. Eukaryotes are like an office with cubicles. Cubicles are organelles.
What are the basic functions of the nucleus, chloroplasts, and mitochondria?
Nucleus - house genetic material (DNA), control cell's functions.

Chloroplasts - use photosynthesis to convert sunlight into food. found in plants and algae.

Mitochondria - sites of cellular respiration. convert food into ATP (energy).
What is "endosymbiotic theory"? which organelle does it apply to?
Ancestral eukaryotes engulfed ancestral prokaryotes, merged, and over time the prokaryote evolves into mitochondria or chloroplast.
How do chemical bonds relate to energy? What direction is energy flow?
They are a form of potential energy. Unidirectional.
What are endergonic reactions? Exergonic reactions?
"Energy inward". Reactants have less energy than products, requires an input of energy. Simpler molecules to complex.

"Energy outward". Reactants have more energy. Complex to simpler.
What is the role of "ATP"? What is its basic structure?
Main energy carrier in cells, its the cell's "energy currency".

Adenine (Nitrogenous base), ribose sugar, 3 phosphate groups.
Describe the role of different wavelengths in photosynthesis, including absorption/reflection and why the leaves change colors.
Different wavelengths have different amounts of energy. Pigments in plants absorb and reflect different colors at the different seasons. (Reflect green in spring, orange/yellow/red in fall)
What is cellular respiration? where does it occur? what organisms use it? what are the three main processes that make it up? which step produces the most energy?
Process that converts nutrients into ATP for energy, then releases wastes.
It occurs in mitochondria.
Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain.
electron transport chain.
Whats the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration? (including energy output)
Anaerobic lacks oxygen. Results in the end product of lactic acid or ethanol (animals or yeast) instead of water in aerobic.
What is photosynthesis? where does it occur? what organisms use it? What are the two main components of the process? (light dependent and calvin cycle). Differences between the two?
Process using water, energy in the form of sunlight, and carbon dioxide to produce oxygen and glucose.
Calvin cycle doesnt need light. Produces glucose (sugar).
Light dependent. Uses light and water. Produces oxygen.