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Anthropology Exam 1
Terms in this set (81)
The Order Primates contains...
prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans
System for naming organisms created by Carolus Linnaeus in 1758
11 Characteristics that all primates have
1. Forward-facing eyes
2. Wide binocular field and stereoscopy
3.High visual acuity
4. Orbit surrounded by bone
5. More/Larger areas of the brain devoted to visual processing
6. Prehensile hands/divergent thumbs
7. Prehensile feet/divergent big toe
8. Nails instead of claws
9. Large apical pads
10. Small litter size
11. Relatively long period of gestation and infant dependency
What does the Arboreal Hypothesis for how primates evolved their characteristic features say?
Primates evolved from an arboreal ancestor - unique traits are adaptations to life in trees
What does the Visual Predation Hypothesis for how primates evolved their characteristic features say?
Says that the LCA of primates was small, arboreal, nocturnal, a visual predator, and occupied a microhabitat characterized by small-diameter supports.
________ is the science of naming and classifying organisms, it is a specific scheme of classification that started in earnest with Linnaeus
Ecologically based taxonomy divides primates into two groups. What are they, and what do they encapsulate?
-Prosimians, containing lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers
-Anthropoids containing New World Monkeys, Old World Monkeys, apes, and humans
Phylogenetically based taxonomy divides primates into two groups. What are they, and what do they encapsulate?
-Strepsirrhines, containing lemurs and lorises
-Haplorhines, containing tarsiers, NWM, OWM, and apes
The only real difference in the taxonomical systems for primates is how they classify _______
Strepsirrhines are only found in the ___ ______
old world (Africa, Asia, Madagascar)
Lemuriformes are only found in _________
Lorisiformes are found in _____ and ____. They are not found in the new world or Madagascar
Four derived features of anthropids
-Fused frontal bone in the skull
-Fused mandibular synthesis
-Anthropoids generally have larger brains than prosimians
___ _______ are the only nocturnal anthropoids
Members of the family ________ are the only primates with prehensile tails. They have lost their opposable thumbs because they are not necessary for the way that they move through the substrate
The infraorder Catarrhini contains two superfamilies: _____________ and ________
Within cercopithecoidea, there are two subfamilies; ____________ and ____________
Features of colobines
High cusps and complex stomachs, diet of leaves
Features of cercopithecines
Low cusps, cheek pouches, simple stomachs. Diet of fruit
Within superfamily hominoidea there are two families
hylobatidae and homininae
Some examples of cercopithecines are
Baboons, Mandrills, Macaques
Some examples of colobines are
Colobus monkeys, langurs, proboscis monkeys
Definition of evolution
A change in allele frequencies in a population over time
A ____ is a small section of DNA that codes for a protein
______ are variants of the same gene
_______ is the unit of evolutionary change
European world view during middle ages (4 things)
1. Earth is at the center of the universe
2. The Earth is very young
3. Species are fixed, they do not change
4. Organisms excel in their niche because they were designed to do so by a higher being
the use of ultimate purpose or design as a means of explaining natural phenomena
organisms can be grouped on a linear scale from simple to complex, with humans on the top
-Asserted that the sun is the center of the universe, not the earth
-Said that science required hypothesis testing using empirical data
Proved that Copernicus was correct, that the sun is at the center of the universe (solar system)
Created binomial classification. Believed in teleological explanations of natural phenomena and the fixity of species. He just wanted to organize "God's world."
What is Homology, and who defined it?
"the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function." Defined by Richard Owen
-Suggested that the earth was more than 6000 years old?
-Challenged the fixity of species?
-Noticed that there were anatomical similarities between humans and apes and discussed the possibility of common ancestry?
Who was the first to propose a coherent mechanism for how evolution might occur, and what is that mechanism called?
Lamarck. Change through striving (acquired characteristics passed on to offspring.) This mechanism is wrong
What did George Cuvier do?
-Established extinction as a fact with the explanation of catastrophism; geological epochs end with sudden violent events leading to mass death
-Provided further evidence that the earth is old
Who defined uniformitarianism and what does it mean?
Charles Lyell. The same geological processes that happened in the past are observable today. Given enough time, small changes can have a large effect
What were the assertions of English economist Thomas Malthus?
He asserted that disease and other factors keep population size in check. If left unchecked, a population tended to increase faster than available food resources.
Who wrote the Origin of Species and when was it written?
Charles Darwin, 1859
What are Darwin's 3 Fundamental Points?
1. The ability of a population to expand is infinite, but the carrying capacity of the environment is finite
2. Individuals of a given species vary in morphology and behavior, and this variation leads to different fitness
3. Some of this variation is transmitted from parents to offspring
What does it mean for traits to be selected for/against?
Traits that confer advantages in survival and reproduction are retained in population, disadvantageous traits disappear over time
What are the three parts of Natural selection and what do they mean?
1. Variation - variation exists within individuals in a population
2. Heredity - parents pass on some of their distinctive characteristics to their offspring
3. Differential reproduction - because of their distinctive inherited characteristics, some individuals within a population will survive better than others
# of offspring one produces that reach reproductive age
An individual's reproductive success relative to that of other members of the same species
A trait that is favored by natural selection
a random process by which environmental factors or errors in cell duplication change an individual's genetic material
What are the 4 mechanisms of evolution?
1. Natural Selection
3. Gene Flow
4. Genetic Drift
What is gene flow?
change in gene frequencies within a population due to migration from or interbreeding with individuals from another population (of the same species.)
the sum effect of random changes in allele frequencies within a population. Over time, a random processes can have a large cumulative effect.
Biological Species Concept
A group of organisms that are actually or potentially interbreeding and are reproductively isolated from other groups. (If you CAN or COULD mate and produce fertile offspring, you're in the same species.)
what is reproductive isolation?
-Prevention of gene flow between populations by genetically determined differences between them.
-Something that prevents acts of mating/production of viable offspring other than physical separation
Ecological Species Concept
emphasizes the role of natural selection in maintaining species boundaries. Says that gene flow can occur, but separate species are recognized because natural selection acts against hybrid individuals
-Population is divided by some barrier, gene flow is interrupted
-When separated for long enough, populations become different due to genetic drift or different selection environments
-When barrier disappears, no longer geographically isolated, but reproductively isolated (do not recognize each other as viable mates.)
-Doesn't require a barrier
-The environment is varied enough that some phenotypes will be favored in one environment and another phenotype is favored in the other environment
-Gene flow is reduced -> acts like isolating mechanism
-Happens when there are two different morphs in a population and reproductive isolating mechanism quickly take hold
speciation by splitting of lineages
-Special type of cladogenesis
-Rapid series of multiple cladogenic events
-Often occurs following colonization of new landmass
the gradual transformation of one species into another
scientific classification (usually based on shared characteristics)
a model of presumed evolutionary relationships based on shared characteristics
Plesiomorphic (primitive) traits
features shared by a group that are inherited from a more distant common ancestor
Apomorphic (derived) traits
evolutionary innovations that evolved de novo in the the group in question
independent evolution of similar features in 2 or more lineages (usually in response to similar niche/environmental pressures)
3 types of homoplasy
3. Evolutionary Reversal
Evolution of similar structures using different anatomical features as a starting point
evolution of similar structures using the same anatomical feature as a starting point
re-evolution of a plesiomorphic feature
Principle of Parsimony
-Assumes that features will evolve as few times as possible
-In effect, minimizes homoplasy
-Forward-facing eyes COULD have evolved 3 times in parallel in primates (strepsirrhines, tarsiers, and anthropoids,) but it is much more parsimonious to assume that forward-facing eyes evolved only one, in the LCA of primates
When you construct phylogenies using only synapomorphies and employing the principle of parsimony
sequences of DNA that can copy themselves at random and reinsert themselves at random in the genome
emigration from a social group. The main effect of dispersal is gene flow: genes move around the landscape.
Males stay in their group in many (but not all) primates
-Reference to the fitness of behavioral traits
-Does not necessarily imply the behavior is genetically determined
-Simply means that it has genetic consequences in terms of the # of offspring it allows the individual to produce
capacity of a single genotype to produce multiple phenotypes in response to the environment
the range of phenotypes that will be developed by a genotype over a range of environments
relationship of environmental stress to phenotype via an epigenetic mechanism that alters gene expressions
biochemical process where a methyl group is added to cytosine or adenine DNA nucleotides. Methylation alters the expression of genes in cells when they divide and differentiate
Examples of pithecines
tits, sakis, uakaris
new world monkeys
Some members of family cebidae
________ are the only group of primates that produce twins, and the males take care of the offspring
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