Terms in this set (58)
What are the general components of urinalysis?
What hormones are produced by kidneys?
1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D
Why are those with chronic renal failure often anemic?
kidney releases erythropoietin
What do you get if you divide your hematocrit by 3?
What do you get if you divide hemoglobin by 3?
accumulation in the blood of nitrogen-bearing waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine
What values are elevated in azotemia?
BUN and creatinine
What is typically the cause of elevated BUN?
What prerenal conditions can cause elevated BUN?
reduced flow to kidney
(shock, dehydration, volume depletion, heart failure)
What renal conditions cause azotemia?
What post renal issues lead to elevated BUN?
Where is urea and BUN produced?
What can a decreased level of BUN be attributed to?
What is creatinine directly related to?
What will too much creatinine lead to?
What major diseases cause concern over renal failure?
rate at which kidney filters plasma
How do you get GFR?
by finding creatinine clearance
How many stages are there of chronic kidney disease?
What is used to judge stage of renal failure?
What can cause reduced specific gravity?
excess fluid intake
What can cause raised specific gravity?
What does a constant specific gravity suggest?
chronic renal disorder
What can the dipstick find?
When will you run a micro albumin?
diabetic pts when worried about early renal disease
What can cause increased urine protein?
high or low temerature
What is the primary protein found in urine?
glomerulonephritis, tubular interstitial disease, multiple myeloma (bence jones), malignant hypertension, pyelonephritis.
bence jones proteins
tied to multiple myeloma
What is the dipstick for glucose specific for?
glucose only - no fructose, maltose, galactose or any other saccharides
Renal threshold for glucose
***What can cause glucose in the urine?
***What can cause a false glucose positive?
Bleach, hydrogen peroxide
What can cause a positive urine ketone test?
not enough food
What ketone cannot be picked up by the dipstick?
When will you see positive Hgb?
When can you have a positive Hgb but no blood in urine?
when myoglobin is in the urine - test cannot differentiate
rhabdomyalysis (compartment syndrome, electrocution)
Skeletal muscle damage resulting in release of muscle proteins to the bloodstream (potentially fatal - renal failure).
no back pain
What tests will you want in the case of hematuria?
complete urinalysis (dip & microscopic)
cystoscopy (scope in the meatus)
urine cytologic exam (stain cells and search for certain types)
When is bilirubin in the urine a pathological finding?
What can cause bilirubin the liver?
hepatitis (viral, drug induced, toxic)
biliary obstruction (gall stones)
water soluble and can be excreted
formed by intestines from bilirubin -> excreted through GI tract - should not be in urine
What type of bacteria will cause a positive urine nitrite?
Ecoli, salmonella, citrobacter, poteus
darker purple means more WBCs in urine
What can cause positive leukocyte esterase?
What will you typically give for UTI?
What will you give for pyelonephritis?
What confirms bilirubin?
test performed to check for glucose in urine; most accurate reagent strip testing method with urine for diabetes
What cannot be picked up by clintiest?
What is the confirmatory test for protein?
Confirmatory test for ketones
What do you come across in urine microscopy?