39 terms

de Blij APHG Ch.8 Political Geography Vocabulary Words

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Ability
In the context of political power, the capacity of a state to influence other states or achieve its goals through diplomatic, economic and militaristic means
Boundary
Vertical plane between states that cuts through the rocks below, and the airspace above the surface.
Capitalism
Economic model wherein people, corporations and states produce goods & exchange them on the world market, with the goal of achieving profit.
Centripetal
Forces that tend to UNITE a country - such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared ideological objectives and a common faith
Centrifugal
Forces that tend to DIVIDE a country - such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic or ideological differences
Colonialism
Physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land.
Commodification
The process through which something is given monetary value
Critical Geopolitics
Process by which geopoliticans deconstruct and focus on explaining the underlying spatial assumptions & territorial perspectives of politicians.
Democracy
Gov't based on the principle that the people are the ultimate sovereign & have the final say over what happens within the state
Devolution
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength & growing autonomy at the expense of the central gov't.
Federal (state)
A political-territorial system wherein a central gov't represents the various entities within a nation-state where they have common interests- defense, foreign affairs, and the like- yet allows these various entities to retain their own identities and to have their own laws, politics and customs in certain spheres.
Geometric boundary
Political boundary defined and delimited (and occasionally demarcated) as a straight line or an arc
Gerrymandering
Redistricting for advantage, or the practice of dividing areas into electoral districts to give on political party an electoral majority in a large number of districts while concentrating the voting strength of the opposition in as districts as possible
Reapportionment
Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
Heartland Theory
Theory that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world through controlling access to Eurasia.
Majority-minority districts
The process by which a majority of the population is from the minority
Mercantilism
Associated with the promotion of commercialism & trade.
Multinational State
STATE with more than one nation within its borders
Nation
A term encompassing all the citizens of a state. Also refers to a tight knit group with bonds of language, ethnicity, religion & other shared cultural attributes.
Nationstate
A recognized member of the modern state system possessing formal sovereignty & occupied by a people who see themselves as a single united nation. Synonym for country or state.
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ends the 30yrs War. The treaties contained new language recognizing statehood & nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security.
Periphery
Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, & less tech; & generate less wealth than core processes in the world-economy.
Core
Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries and more tech; generate more wealth than periphery processes in the world-economy
Semi-periphery
Places where core & periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery
Physicalpolitical Boundary
(Natural-Political) Political boundary defined & delimited (& occasionally demarcated) by a prominent physical feature in the natural landscape - such as a river or the crest ridges of a mountain range.
Deterritorialization
The movement of economic, social and cultural processes out of the hands of states.
Scale
Representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization
Reterritorizlization
With respect to popular culture, when people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture & making it their own.
Sovereignty
A principle of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic & political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states.
Splitting
The process by which the majority & minority populations are spread evenly across each of the districts to be created therein ensuing control by the majority of each of the districts; as opposed to the result of majority-minority districts
State
A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign gov't & is recognized by a significant portion of the international community
Political Geography
Focuses on the nature & implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance & formal political practice on the Earth's surface
Stateless Nation
Does not have a state
Supranational Organization
A venture involving 3 or more nation-states involving formal political, economic &/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives.
Territorial Representation
System wherein each representative is elected from a territorially defined district
Territoriality
In political geography, a country's or more local community's sense of property & attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable & strongly defended
Unilateralism
World order in which one state is in a position of dominance with allies following rather than joining the political decision-making process.
Unitary
A nation-state that has a centralized gov't & administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state.
Worldsystems theory
Proposes that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world.