Third of the Abbasid caliphs; attempted but failed to reconcile moderates among Shi'a to Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve problem of succession
Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession
a representative sent on a mission or errand
The Thousand and One Nights
collectiion of Arab, Indian and Persian Stories
The son of Harun al-Rashid and a Caliphate; founded astronomical observatory and a foundation for translating classical Greek works, established House of Wisdom.
a professional soldier hired by a foreign army
The living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household which first developed in the Abbasid Caliphate. Along with the veil it became a symbol of women's increasing subjugation durring this period.
woman who lives with a man without being legally married to him
a man who has been castrated and is incapable of reproduction
945 regional splinter dynasty from Persia that conquered the Abbasid Caliphate and captured Baghdad. The leader was a Shi'ite Buyid. Took on title of sultan and ruled until 1055.
Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia who conquered Baghdad in 1055; staunch Sunnis; ruled in name of Abbasid caliphs from mid-11th century
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem. United all Muslims
a lustrous, stiff fabric, often used for women's dresses, especially formal wear
a believer or follower of Islam
plain-woven cotton fabric
a fabric of linen or cotton or silk or wool with a reversible pattern woven into it
a wall hanging of heavy handwoven fabric with pictorial designs
Persian poet, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher; author of The Rubaiyat, a collection of poems about a man who celebrates the simple pleasures in life
A great poet who wrote the epic Shah Nama which is a prodigious collection of tales and anecdotes during the early 11th century.
Muslim religious scholars. From the ninth century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies. (p. 238)
Brilliant Islamic theologian; struggled to fuse Greek and Qur'anic traditions; not entirely accepted by ulama
The branch of Islam that believes in a more mystical connection with Allah.
People from Central Asia when united under Genghis Khan ended up creating the largest single land empire in history.
(1217 - 1265) Ruler of the Ilkhan khanate; grandson of Chinggis Khan; responsible for capture and destruction of Baghdad in 1257.
Also known as Temujin; he united the Mongol tribes into an unstoppable fighting force; created largest single land empire in history.
A large ancient city of the Indus civilization, created in present-day Pakistan
Indian dynasty (320-550 C.E.) that briefly reunited India after the collapse of the earlier Mauryan dynasty.
a large landmass that juts out from a continent
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life
a group or system in which positions of power are ranked, usually from lowest to highest
Arab general; conquered Sind in India; declared the region and the Indus valley to be part of the Umayyad Empire
The eternal essence of reality and the source of the universe, beyond the reach of human perception and thought in Hinduism
Term used in India for kings or princes
Mahmud of Ghanzi
leader of the Turks in Afghanistan, turned his attention to the rich land of the Indian subcontinent. Most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty and ruled from 997-1030, first ruler to carry the title of Sultan. More focused on wealth than conquering and ruling India.
Muhammad of Ghur
Persian military commander who ruled a small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan; began process of conquest to establish Muslim political control of northern India; brought much of Indus valley, Sind, and northwestern India under his control.
Lieutenant of Muhammad of Ghur; established kingdom in India with capital at Delhi; proclaimed himself Sultan of India
military and political leader with absolute authority over a Muslim country
Hindu custom that called for a wife to join her husband in death by throwing herself on his funeral pyre
Hindu religious groups who stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the gods or goddesses—especially Shiva, Vishnu, and Kali.
Celebrated Hindu writer of religious poetry; reflected openness of bhaktic cults to women
Trading empire centered on Malacca Straits between Malaya and Sumatra; controlled trade of empire; Buddhist government resistant to Muslim missionaries; fall opened up southeastern Asia to Muslim conversion.
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca
Muslim mystic during 15th century; played down the importance of ritual differences between Hinduism and Islam
A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Used throughout western civilization today.