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Info from MTC AP II Lecture notes

Superior rectus

moves eye up

Inferior rectus

moves eye down

Medial rectus

moves eye toward midline

Lateral rectus

moves eye away from midline

superior oblique

located above the eyeball and rotates the eyeball

inferior oblique

located below the eyeball and rotates the eyeball


conversion of light energy into a visual perception

bulbar conjunctiva

mucous membrane on surface of eyeball for protection


white outer layer of the eye (excluding cornea) used for muscle attachment, it has many collagenous and elastic fibers


anterior portion of eye that transmits light entering the eye


middle layer of eye that contains pigments and vessels, absorbs excess light and is the attachment of internal structures of the eye.

aqueous humor

fluid that is secreted by the ciliary process, nourishes and maintains the shape of the eyeball.

canal of schlemm

aka scleral venous sinus, at the junction of the sclera and cornea in the medial corner of the eye, it drains aqueous humor

ciliary veins

where the aqueous humor goes after leaving the canal of schlemm

anterior cavity of the eye

space anterior to the lens that contains aqueous humor and has two chambers.

anterior chamber of the anterior cavity

space between the cornea and iris

space between the iris and the lens

posterior chamber of the anterior cavity


hole formed by the iris that blocks divergent rays and excess light


focuses light on the retina, it is biconvex and avascular

suspensory ligaments

connects the lens to the ciliary body

ciliary body

the circular attachment for suspensory ligaments, has two parts: ciliary process and ciliary muscle

ciliary muscle

located on the anterior portion of the ciliary body it alters the shape of the lens

posterior cavity

contains vitreous humor and maintains the shape and supports the internal structures such as the retina.


neural layer that contains photoreceptors and converts light energy to nerve impulses

optic disc

aka blind spot, area in the retina where the optic nerve exits the back of the eye

macula lutea

exact center of the posterior portion of the retina, contains the central fovea

central fovea

area that contains the highest concentration of cones


the bending of light, the lens fine tunes

the cornea

75% of all refraction occurs here

constriction (of pupil)

the blocking of divergent rays so image is projected clearly on the retina

accommodation (of lens)

increased curvature of the lens for near vision

lens shortens (rounds)

happens to the lens when ciliary muscles contract for near objects

lens lengthens (flattens)

happens to lens when ciliary muscles relax for distant objects


medial movement of the two eyeballs so both are directed toward an object, light rays strike the corresponding points on each retina, binocular vision

inverted image

image on retina is upside down


normal eye, normal vision, light is focused directly on the retina


nearsightedness, light focused in front of the retina, distant objects are blurred, corrected my concave lenses


farsightedness, light is focused behind the retina, near objects are blurred, corrected by convex lens

nearsightedness, by a concave lens in a pair of glasses.

abnormally long eyeball would cause what? how would this be corrected?

farsightedness, by a convex lens in a pair of glasses

abnormally short eyeball would cause what? how would this be corrected?

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