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An acute inflammation of the appendix


When fecal materials remains in the colon too long, causing excessive re-absorption of the water. The feces or stool becomes hard,dry, and difficult to eliminate.

Causes for Constipation

Poor bowel habit, chronic laxative use leading to a lazy bowel, a diet low in fiber, and certain digestive diseases.

S/S: of Constipation

Abdominal pain and cramping, inability to defecate.

Tx: for Constipation

Diet high in fiber (fruits and vegetables),adequate water intake and exercise regularly and enemas.

Appendicitis signs and symptoms

Nausea,vomiting,mild fever,and elevated white blood cell count.


Chronic destruction of the liver cells accomplished by formation of fibrous connective scar tissue.

Causes for Cirrhosis

Hepatitis,bile duct disease,chemical toxins,and malnutrition associated with alcoholism

S/S Cirrhosis

Liver enlargement, anemia, indigestion, nausea and vomiting, nosebleeds,jaundice

Tx: for Cirrhosis

directed toward preventing further damage to the liver.Alcohol avoidance,proper nutrition that include high protein and vitamins diet, and getting plenty of rest.


condition characterized by frequent water stools.

Causes of Diarrhea

Infection,stress,diet,and irritated colon,and toxic substances

S/S: of Diarrhea

Abdominal cramping that forces frequent defecation and generalized weakness.

Tx: for Diarrhea

Eliminate the cause,provide adequate fluid intake, and modifying the diet


Stones in the gallbladder

S/S: Cholelithiasis

Abdominal pain that may radiate toward the back and heartburn especially after eating, nausea, and vomiting.

Tx: for Cholelithiasis

low-fat diet,lithotripsy(shock waves that are used to shatter the gallstones), and of a cholecystectomy(surgical removal of the gallbladder.

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