TExES Pedagogy and Professional Responsibilities (PPR) Study for Exam
Terms in this set (188)
One of the processes that helps create equilibrium. According to Piaget, the process by which existing mental structures (schemas) and behaviors are modified to adapt to new experiences
Changing of existing knowledge structures (schemas) to fit new conditions. Either through: assimilation or accommodation
An eating disorder characterized by very limited food intake
According to Piaget, the process by which new ideas and experiences are absorbed and incorporated into existing mental structures and behaviors
An eating disorder characterized by overeating/binge eating (and a fear of not being able to stop eating) followed by purging by self-induced vomiting or laxatives.
A young child's tendency to focus only on his or her own perspective of a specific object and a failure to understand that others may see things differently.
the realization that a change in the appearance of an object does not necessarily change the characteristics of the object.
belief that children are not passive in the learning process; each learner constantly and actively seeks information and meshes old knowledge with new to make it meaningful in building or constructing his or her knowledge.
In Piaget's theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view.
the constant innate search for a balance between what we already know and a new activity, skill, or social experience
Adolescents' belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern.
internally determined to change
the ability to think about one's own cognitive thinking processes and to use this process to facilitate learning.
continual process of arranging and connecting information, objects, and events within meaningful mental systems (schemata)
An adolescents belief that they are special in the sense of being unique, invulnerable, and omnipotent, so few can understand them
the period of life immediately before puberty, often marked by accelerated physical growth
the stage of adolescence in which an individual becomes physiologically capable of sexual reproduction
ability to arrange objects in an orderly fashion (in a series) using a quantitive dimension (size, for example)
Stages of Cognitive Development
(Piaget) 1. sensorimotor 2. preoperational 3. concrete operational 4. formal operational
successful application of new knowledge and use of new norms from another culture while retaining one's own native culture and language
basic interpersonal communication skills (BCIS)
as a language learner, being able to use conversational, everyday language (can take up to two years)
unfair preferences or prejudices toward particular groups of people
Cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP)
as a language learner, being able to use a language for abstract, academic purposes (5-7 years)
culturally relevant teaching (CRT)
a theory that underscores teaching practices grounded in the understanding of culture and experiences that shape students
English as a second language (ESL)
a program or category pertaining to students whose native language is not English but who are learning English for academic purposes
English language learner (ELL)
the current term used to describe a child who is learning English as a second language
funds of knowledge
knowledge, skills, and experiences that families and communities practice that, when recognized by teachers, can enhance learning; usually refers to minority families whose knowledge and skills do not match typical school knowledge and skills
least restrictive environment (LRE)
children who are differently abled are required by law to be placed in regular classrooms to the greatest extent possible
limited English proficient (LEP)
an older term used to describe children learning English as a second language (ESL or ELLs); it was criticized for emphasizing the negative rather than the positive
of only one culture
of more than one culture
people whose ancestors are from three or more different racial groups.
connections to the community
the part of the lesson plan in which a teacher makes a connection between new learning and where a child might find that particular learning in his or her world
integration that makes connections with various subject/conten areas somewhere within each lesson or within integrated thematic units
integration that makes connections within a discipline
a report of exactly how many items were answered correctly on a test
compares a score with a minimum standard based upon the difficulty of the test
how much into a topic that instruction will delve
learns best through hearing (aurally, through lectures, tapes, etc.)
a view of learning that emphasizes the role that the environment plays in changing observable behavior; one learns because of reinforcement or punishment
grouping bits of information into units that are more meaningful in order to allow more items to be included in memory
learning as a result of pairing a stimulus with an automatic emotional or physiological response
cognitive learning theory
theory of learning that emphasizes the change in one's mental structures as a result of a need to make sense of one's world.
knowing when and why to use declarative and procedural knowledge
a view of learning that emphasizes the role of the learner in building his or her own understanding of the world
the simple pairing of two behaviors enough times so that they continue to b appeared, even when only one is presented
problem solving where there is one answer and only one way to get the answer
a type of knowledge that is factually based
problem solving where there are multiple ways an answer could be obtained and a variety of answers that could be viable
the process of moving information into long-term memory
learners who are more global or big picture oriented, extrinsically motivated and more socially oriented
learners who are more local or detail oriented, analytical, intrinsically motivated, and less socially oriented
receives and represents information best through movement
learning or thinking in a certain way or ways
the removal of something undesirable in order to increase a behavior
the introduction of a valued reward to increase a desired behavior
the introduction of a valued reward to increase a desired behavior
the removal of something pleasurable in order to decrease a behavior
when a child gets too much of a reward or punishment, it becomes meaningless and will no longer influence behavior
a place in the mind where information received from the sense is briefly stored. if no attention is paid to it then the information is lost
receives and represents information best through touch.
learning that results from seeing someone else's behavior either rewarded or punished
receives and represents information best through sight.
A legal term that defines the specific way in which copyrighted material may be used without the author's permission. Teachers often take great liberty with copyrights related to educational articles and materials.
"Educational Purposes" means:
-instruction by educators to students at nonprofit educational institutions
-a study or research findings at conferences
Teachers may photocopy articles to give students, but student's may not be charged more than the cost of they copying and the number of copies cannot exceed more than one copy per pupil. A notice of copyright must be on each copy.
legal issues regarding what constitutes public domain and what is copyrighted
Consideration in entirety
an assessment of the entirety of something; evaluating the whole thing in its entirety rather than in parts
the part of learning that is associated with feelings and emotions; other domains of learning are cognitive, social, and psychomotor
the feelings that the members of a classroom share about the social, emotional, and academic aspects of their environment.
community of learners
learning environments wherein everyone in the group is learning together and from one another in a supportive manner; in a classroom, this means that all children, as well as the teacher, learn together
Kohlberg's stage of moral reasoning (ages 10-20) where a person's moral decisions are based on concern for other people and the laws of society.
questions that necessitate "right" or factual answers (usually lower-level questions)
questions that necessitate or encourage creative thinking and to which there are multiple answers
conveying a message in a clear, unambiguous manner, usually in words, so that both the one sending the message and the one receiving the message are aware of the content
conveying a message in a hidden manner implicit messages are often conveyed through body language or behavior
learning that is a result of observing the behaviors and actions of others.
a way to resolve conflict using trained individuals of the same cohort and who follow a specified protocol
the ability to see situations from another person's point of view
person's perception about whether or not he or she can be successful at accomplishing a task
the belief that there is a high probability for success
the belief that there is a low probability for success
social cognitive theory
Bandar's theory of learning from modeling or by observing the actions of others
Basic Needs (Glasser)
5 needs: survival, love, power, fun, and freedom.
Must be satisfied, so children can learn. 5 needs are not met, children will try to "take" them from others, (often in inappropriate ways)
conditions of learning (Cambourne's)
7 conditions met learning increases: immersion, demonstration, expectations, responsibility, employment, approximation, and engagement.
code of ethics
required standards for the professional ethical conduct of educators; a set of behavioral principles that guide educators' interactions
compensatory education programs
designed to meet the needs of at-risk students; provide supplementary services for academic assistance; additional funding (normally from the federal level) is provided for these programs.
a campus committee required under the Texas Education Code to review the placement of a student after he/she has been removed from a regular classroom by the teacher.
student code of conduct
a required set of behavioral expectations and consequences, including conditions for suspension, placement in an alternative education program, and expulsion
technique usually used at the beginning of the lesson in which the teacher provides students with the structure, overview, and nature of the content of the upcoming learning experiecne.
an activity in which members of a group reflect and evaluate their functioning as a group.
statement about a behavior that has 3 parts:
1. it describes the specific behavior
2. the effect on the person sending the message
3. the way that person feels about the behavior
a set of empirically derived rules for communication via the Internet
a follow-up question used to encourage deeper thinking through elaboration, clarification, justification, etc.
multiple questions asked at one time so that the receiver can become confused about which one to address
states that a person's beliefs about the cause(s) of his/her successes and/or failures influences motivation
an approach to motivation that emphasizes the role of rewards and punishment in motivating people's actions
classroom discussion model
a teaching strategy in which students read and/or listen while designing questions of their own at 3 levels of thinking (factual, interpretive, and evaluative)
an approach to motivation that emphasizes people's innate desire to make sense of their world
the four lower-level needs of Maslow's hierarchy of needs (survival, safety, belonging, and esteem); they must be satisfied before one can move on to growth needs.
external locus of control
belief that one's successes and failures are caused by outside environmental factors over which one has little or no control
the 3 higher-level needs of Maslow's hierarchy of needs (intellectual achievement, aesthetic appreciation, and self-actualization); these needs can never be completely fulfilled- only enhanced- and can only be attended to after lower-level deficiency needs have been met
stopping the forward motion of a lesson completely to give students some time to "digest" the material
instruction that begins with curious events, scenarios, questions, or "unknowns," and then moves to "knowns," or finding the answers; this is a more student-centered approach (discovery/inquiry lesson) in which the student actively searches for knowledge
a method of instruction that meets the needs, goals, and objectives of learners- the "how will I teach particular information to students" component of a lesson plan.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
a model of motivation based on 7 levels of human needs, ranging from basic deficiency needs to growth needs according to this hierarchy, each of the deficiency needs must be met prior to being able to function at the next higher level.
models of teaching
instructional strategies created for a particular purpose (co-op grouping, inquiry, etc.) in which many subject areas can be employed within many subject areas can be employed within the framework of the model
constantly gaining feedback from students about how their learning is progressing in order to make decisions about proceeding with the current lesson or reteaching the material before moving on further
the "feel" of the movement in time (or momentum) of the lesson
introducing or presenting something disliked or distasteful which results in a decrease of a behavior
a penalty or consequences that results in the decrease of a behavior
a reward that results in the increase of a behavior
taking away something pleasurable or desired which results in the increase of a behavior
one's perception of oneself and one's abilities
the belief that one is capable of accomplishing something
how one feels about one's own self-concept or perceptions of self
a role in which the teacher is an observer when a student product is completed and then demonstrated, explained, or performed by students
a role in which the teacher gives immediate feedback and encouragement to students as new skills are attempted
a role in which the teacher provides a structure for learning and then help when there are questions or stumbling blocks
a role in which the teacher mediates and adjusts to help students obtain information on their own
describes lessons in which the teacher imparts information, and the learners are passive receivers of knowledge (rather than active learners)
innovative technology for specially challenged populations that assists in many areas of their daily lives (adaptive keyboard, "bionics," motorized chairs, voice-input devices, etc.)
BIOS (basic input/output system)
installed on the computer's motherboard, it controls the most basic operations of a computer and is responsible for starting a computer up and initializing the hardware
the process of incorporating a blend of virtual and physical resources for learning, or a combination of online and face-to-face teaching methods
megahertz speed, meaning how fast the memory and the computer can run
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
a self-learning technique with mastery involving interaction of the student with technological programmed-instruction modules
course management system (CMS)
a tool that allows instructions, universities, and cooperations to develop and support blended online education by managing grades, course objectives, a learning community forum, document sharing, etc.
CPU (central processing unit)
the computer's control center, or the "brain does all the thinking" (computation); a fast CPU (measured in megahertz) greatly aids in the overall speed of the computers should have speeds of at least one gigahertz (1000 megahertz) to comply with software and speed issues (at time of publication)
some households are unable to afford equipment and access to technology at home; this disadvantages students who are given technology-related homework
teachers must plan for communication avenues that are non-technology related for these parents
digital versatile disc (DVD)
an optical storage medium with improved capacity and bandwidth over the compact disc; it was initially marketed for entertainment because it can hold an entire movie
students and instruction in various locations can be linked through various technology (audio, video, etc.)
DPI (dots per inch)
a measurement used for monitors, printers, scanners, and in digital editing software; higher numbers usually represent better quality but then require better monitors, more ink to print, more memory to scan photos and documents, and a good understanding of how to reduce DPI when trying to share documents through the internet or backup travel devices that are limited in size
a filtering system that stops navigation on particular Internet locations and can stop mist viruses and spam or specified emails from coming through; can also protect district servers from being accessed from outside and/or from being damaged or hacked into
equal to 1024 megabytes
integrated learning system (ILS)
a master system of "software solutions" that offers a total package as the "computer teacher" with lessons, drill, assessment, record keeping, and so forth
a product of the intellect that has commercial value, including copyrighted property and ideational property.
LAN (local area network)
a computer network covering a small physical area
one million clock cycles per second; the primary measure of a computer's processing speed in the past; after 2,000, gigahertz became the standard measurement unit. it is easier to say 2.4 gigahertz than 2400 megahertz
the amount of memory space available, used, required, etc.
NIC (Network interface card)
physically makes the connection between the computer and a network possible
an electronic scam to try to get important information out of users on Websites and through emails
RAM (Random Access Memory)
the component that holds the computer's recently accessed data for quick access and is much faster than reading from a hard drive; having considerable RAM (currently, at least 2 gigabytes for newer hardware and software) allows quick retrieval of recently accessed files, applications, and other data
an acronym that brings together presentations with text, images (pictures and graphics), video and audio for more complete concept and linguistic development in teaching and learning.
scores that are based on developmental norms; reporting such scores assumes that all students of certain ages have developed at the same rate
include those which are nontraditional
portfolio or performances
demonstrating a specific skill by constructing a product or solving a problem that could be applied to (or is) a real-life situation
uses absolute standards to answer specific questions about student mastery or how much a student has learned on the set criteria
curriculum-based assessment (CBA)
the process that determines a student's instructional needs within the classroom curriculum or matches assessment to a set of classroom objectives; teacher-made tests are an example
standardized, norm-referenced test. TExES, STAAR, etc.
work samples, portfolios, observations, checklists, and projects
an authentic assessment tool used to assess student progress; consists of a collection of a student's work chosen for a specific purpose and may include the student's self-assessed artifacts
measures student learning toward the goals and objectives at the end of instruction or a specified amount of time
Types of Involvement
Parents may participate in school involvement at one of 6 levels: 1. Basic obligations of parenting 2. Communications 3. Volunteering 4. Learning activities at home 5. Decision making and advocacy 6. Community collaboration
Campus Improvement Plan (CIP)
A stratagem for involving teachers in individual campus-level planning, evaluation, and decision-making processes at their own school; most often the purposes is to improve the achievement of children at their school
Continuing professional education (CPE)
State requirements for certificate renewable specifying time and participation in approval learning experiences that improves an update and educators knowledge and skills
Joint planning and decision-making by those who work at the same level (all kindergarten teachers or off third-grade teachers, etc.)
A teacher, generally A novice or beginner, Who receives guidance and individualized assistance from a more experienced educator
An experienced teacher or administrator who provides guidance and individualized assistance to promote retention and success for new teachers
Professional development appraisal system (PDAS)
A formal evaluation of a teacher's performance in a Texas classroom
A beginning teacher who benefits from the wisdom and guidance of a mentor
Teachers who contemplate, look at again, or study their past teaching moment to enhance professional growth and student achievement
The natural outcome of teachers re-examination and reevaluation of their teaching
The process of probing, inspecting, and studying to improve one's teaching practice
Site-based decision making (SBDM)
A procedure whereby teachers participate in the management, decision-making, and governing of certain aspects of their own school
Teacher appraisal system
A procedure for the evaluation, assessment, and critquing of teachers' abilities to provide meaningful learning outcomes for their students
Teacher self-report form
The retirement of the PDAS that encourages teachers to look within themselves, closely examine their personal convictions, and work towards improvement goals; a personal introspective, and informal evaluation or self-assessment
Instruction provided by two or more teachers who share responsibility for planning and implementing learning experiences for the same class or group of students
Uses of spoken words to transmit information to other individuals
Joint planning and decision-making across grade levels by teachers and other district employees whose focus is school- and/or district-wide effectiveness
Admission, review, and dismissal (ARD) committee
Also known as the individual educational program (IEP) team; the committee whose members: 1.determine eligibility for special education services (admission) 2. Create, review, and modify the child's IEP (review), and 3.May decide to child no longer requires special services (dismissal)
Child protective services (CPS)
Any suspected abuse or neglect of a child must be reported to this agency within 48 hours of suspicion
Commissioner of education
The chief educational officer in the state of Texas who is appointed by the governor and has administrative responsibility for the Texas education agency (TEA) and for overseeing the implementation of legislation into school and district operations
Teachers and schools must follow procedures set up ahead of time (rather than Arbitrary actions) when disciplinary actions (such as expelling or suspending children); special education guidelines allows parents due process to follow regarding the children's programs
Educators' code Of ethics
Standards of ethical conduct for educators developed by the state board for educator certification (SBEC), violation of which may subject educators to disciplinary action
Fair use doctrine
A component of federal law related to copyrights that allows specified copying privileges of a copyrighted work for teaching purposes
Family educational rights and privacy act (FERPA)
Relates your family's and child's rights to confidentiality concerning school information and records
Free and appropriate public education (FAPE)
The provision of IDEA that guarantees special education and related services to children with disabilities at public cost
Refers to a philosophy and resulting practice associated with the education of special education students in regular education classrooms (or settings) to the greatest extent appropriate for each special education child;often referred to as the mainstreaming
Individual education plan (IEP)
A plan or program developed by the admission, review, and dismissal (ARD) committee or IEP team for meeting the specific educational needs of each individual child placed in special education
Public Law 94-192
Education for all handicapped children act provides for a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) for children who qualify
State board for educator certification (SBEC)
An agency within the TEA that has a responsibility for all rules related to educator certification, teacher preparation programs, and the educators code of ethics
State Board of education (SBOE)
The state level elected body that has specific areas of responsibility for education in the state
Trust v. Mistrust
(0-1 year) infants learn to trust or mistrust depending on the degree and regularity of care, love, and affection provided by parents or caregivers
identity status in which one is in the middle of a crisis, but a commitment has not yet been made
Identity v. Role Confusion
(12-18 years) adolescents must make the transition to adulthood, establish an identity, develop a sense of self, and consider a future occupational identity; otherwise, role confusion can result
having no clear conception of appropriate types of behavior that others will react to favorably
period marked by a delay of commitment
Initiative v. Guilt
(3-6 years) children begin to initiate activities, to plan and undertake tasks, and to enjoy developing motor and other abilities; if not allowed to initiate or if made to feel stupid and considered a nuisance, they may develop a sense of guilt
Industry v. Inferiority
(6-12 years) children develop industriousness and feel pride in accomplishing tasks, making things, and doing things; if not encouraged or if rebuffed by parents and teachers, they may develop a sense of inferiority
styles or processes for handling the psychosocial task of establishing a sense of identity; proposed by Marcia as an extension of Erikson's observations