How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

151 terms

Public Speaking

COM 202 deck for University of Rhode Island Public Speaking course.
STUDY
PLAY
oratory or rhetoric
the basic definition of public speaking.
agora
the outdoor marketplace or public square in ancient Greece where speakers would comment on public affairs.
forum
today's version of the agora; the public space where today's public speaking occurs.
forensic oratory
speech given in legal contexts.
deliberative oratory
speech given in legislative or political contexts.
epideictic oratory
speech delivered in special ceremonies; i.e. celebrations or funerals.
canons of rhetoric
5 parts of speech: invention, arrangement, style, memory and delivery.
invention
adapting speech information to the audience in order to make your case.
arrangement
organizing the speech in ways that are best suited to the topic and audience.
style
the way the speaker uses language to express the speech ideas.
memory
practice of the speech until it can be artfully delivered.
delivery
the vocal and non-verbal behavior you use when speaking.
dyadic communication
a form of communication between two people, usu. in a conversation.
small group communication
involves a small number of people who can see and speak directly with one another.
mass communication
occurs between a speaker and a large audience of unknown people; receivers of message are not present with the speaker or are part of such an immense crowd that there is little or no interaction between speaker & listener.
public speaking
speaker delivers a message with a specific purpose to an audience of people who are present during the delivery of the speech.
source
AKA the sender; the person who creates a message.
encoding
process of organizing the message, choosing words and sentence structure, and verbalizing the message.
receiver
the recipient of the sender's message.
decoding
process of interpreting the sender's message by the receiver.
feedback
the audience's response to a message; can be conveyed both verbally and non-verbally.
audience perspective
trying to determine the needs, attitudes, and values of your audience before you begin speaking.
message
the content of the communication process; thoughts and ideas put into meaningful expressions.
channel
the medium through which the speaker sends a message.
noise
any interference with the message.
shared meaning
mutual understanding of a message between speaker and audience.
rhetorical situation
circumstance, which calls for a public response.
culture
the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next.
ethnocentrism
the belief that the ways of our own culture are superior to those of other cultures.
cultural intelligence
"being skilled and flexible about understanding a culture, learning more about it from your ongoing interactions with it, and gradually reshaping your thinking to be more sympathetic to the culture and to be more skilled and appropriate when interacting with others from the culture." - Thomas and Inkson
topic
something to speak about.
audience analysis
a highly systematic process of getting to know your listeners relative to the topic and the speech occasion.
general speech purposes (3)
1. to inform; 2. to persuade; 3 to mark a special occasion.
specific purpose
declarative sentence stating what you expect the speech to accomplish.
thesis statement
clearly expresses the central idea of your speech; what you want to achieve with the speech.
supporting material
illustrates the main points by clarifying, elaborating, and verifying the speaker's ideas.
introduction
serves to introduce the topic and the speaker and to alert audience members to your specific speech purpose..
body
contains the speeches main points and subpoints.
conclusion
restates the speech purpose and reiterates how the main points confirm it.
public speaking anxiety (PSA)
fear or anxiety associated with either actual or anticipated communication to an audience as a speaker.
pre-preparation anxiety
feeling anxious the minute they know they will be giving a speech.
preparation anxiety
anxiety felt during research of the topic, organizing ideas, etc.
pre-performance anxiety
anxiety felt during rehearsal/practice of giving the speech.
performance anxiety
anxiety felt during the delivery of the speech.
visualization
mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation.
feedback loop
continual flow or circular response between speaker and listener.
listening
the conscious act of recognizing, understanding, and accurately interpreting the messages communicated by others.
selective perception
a listening style in which the receiver responds to messages that only interest him or her, the phenomenon that people often pay the most attention to things they already agree with and interpret them according to their own predispositions.
dialogue
Greek; means "through words".
dialogic communication
sharing of ideas and open discussion through words.
active listening
focused, purposeful listening.
listening distraction
anything that competes for attention that you are trying to give to something else.
external listening distraction
anything in the environment that can cause a distraction.
internal listening distraction
thoughts and feelings, both positive and negative that intrude on our attention.
defensive listening
listener decides either that they won't like what the speaker is going to say or that they know better.
critical thinking
the ability to evaluate claims on the basis of well-supported reasons.
valid generalization
supported by different sources, but it does not make claims beyond a reasonable point.
overgeneralization
unsupported conclusions.
responsibility
a charge, trust, or duty for which one is accountable.
ethics
the study of moral conduct; how people should act toward one another.
ethos
Greek; meaning "character".
speaker credibility
is gained when speaker is well prepared, honest, and respectful towards their audience.
values
our most enduring judgments or standards of what's good and bad in life, or what's important to us.
First Amendment
US Constitution; "Congress shall make no law... abridging the freedom of speech.."
free speech
the right to be free from unreasonable constraints on expression.
fighting words
speech that provokes people to violence.
slander
speech that can be proved to be defamatory.
reckless disregard for the truth
you can be legally liable if it can be shown that you knew that what you were saying was false, but said it anyway.
invective
verbal attack.
conversation stopper
speech designed to discredit, demean, and belittle those with whom one disagrees.
rules of engagement
the ways we relate to one another in the public arena.
dignity
ensuring your listeners feel "worthy, honored, or respected as individuals.
integrity
signals that speaker's incorruptibility; she or he will avoid compromising the truth for the sake of personal expediency.
trustworthiness
a combination of honesty and dependability.
respect
"treating people right".
heckler's veto
drowning out a speaker's message with which you disagree.
stereotypes
generalizing about an apparent characteristic of a group and applying that generalization to all of its members.
hate speech
any offensive communication - verbal or non-verbal - that is directed against people's racial, ethnic, religious, gender, or other characteristics.
fairness
when you make a genuine effort to see all sides of an issue and to be open-minded.
plagiarism
the passing off of another person's information as one's own.
wholesale plagiarism
"cut-and-paste" material from sources into your speech and represent it as your own.
patchwrite plagiarism
copying material into your speech draft from a source and then changing or rearranging words and sentence structures here and there to make the material appear as if it were your own.
direct quotations
statements quoted verbatim from a source.
paraphrase
restatement of someone else's ideas, opinions, or theories in your own words.
common knowledge
information that is likely to be known by many people, but such information must truly be widely disseminated.
copyright
legal protection afforded original creators of literary and artistic works.
public domain
anyone may reproduce the source's work.
intellectual property
ownership of an individual's creative expression.
fair use
permits the limited use of copyrighted works without permission for the purposes of scholarship, criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, and research.
audience-centered approach
selecting the speech topic to making decisions about how you will organize, word, and deliver it.
pandering
abandoning your own convictions or cater to the audience's whims.
attitudes
general evaluations of people, ideas, objects, or events.
beliefs
the ways in which people perceive reality.
perspective taking
trying to uncover the audience's feelings and expectations (or disposition) towards the speech.
identification
looking for ways to establish a common bond.
captive audience
audience which is required or obligated to observe the speech.
demographics
statistical characteristics of a given population.
target audience
those individuals whom you are most likely to influence in your direction.
generational identity
the specific generation with which audience members can relate.
socioecononmic status (SES)
includes income, occupation, and education.
gender
our social and psychological sense of ourselves as males or females.
sexist language
language that casts males or females into roles on the basis of sex alone.
gender stereotypes
oversimplified and often severely distorted ideas about the innate nature of what it means to be male or female.
persons with disabilities (PWD)
sight, speech, visual impairments, or learning/comprehension disabilities of some members of your audience.
co-culture
a social community whose values and style of communicating may or may not mesh with your own.
individualistic cultures
tend to emphasize the needs of the individual rather than those of the group.
collectivist cultures
personal identity, needs and desires are viewed as secondary to those of the larger group.
uncertainty avoidance
the extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguity.
high-uncertainty avoidance cultures
tend to structure life more rigidly and formally for their members.
low-uncertainty avoidance cultures
more accepting of uncertainty in life and therefore allow more variation in individual behavior.
power distance
the extent to which a culture values social equality versus tradition and authority.
linear-active cultures
approach tasks systematically, preferring to do one thing at a time, and in organized fashion.
multi-active cultures
tend to do many things at once, are people-oriented, and extroverted.
reactive cultures
people rarely initiate discussions or actions, preferring to listen to what others have to say first.
interview
face-to-face communication for the purpose of gathering information.
questionnaires
designed to gather information from a pool of respondents.
closed-ended questions
designed to elicit a small range of specific answers supplied by the interviewer.
fixed alternative questions
contain a limited choice of answers, such as "yes", "no", or "sometimes".
scale questions
also called "attitude scales"; measure the respondent's level of agreement or disagreement with specific issues.
open-ended questions
designed to allow respondents to elaborate as much as they wish.
informative speech
to increase the audience's understanding and awareness of a topic.
persuasive speech
to effect some degree of change in the audience's attitudes, beliefs, or even basic values (the latter being the hardest to change).
special occasion speeches
includes: speeches of introduction, speeches of acceptance, speeches of presentation, roasts and toasts, eulogies, and after-dinner speeches.
word association
"brainstorming" to come up with ideas.
topic map
visual used to connect and link together ideas.
specific speech purpose
the goal of the speech.
thesis statement
the theme or central idea of the speech stated in a single, declarative sentence.
supporting material
memorable examples, narratives, testimony, facts and statistics.
examples
used to illustrate, describe, or represent things.
brief examples
offer a single illustration or point.
extended examples
offers multifaceted illustrations of the idea, item, or event being described.
hypothetical example
when you need to make a point about something that could happen in the future if certain things occurred.
story/narrative
tells tales, both real and imaginary, about practically anything under the sun.
anedotes
brief stories of interesting and often humorous incidents based on real life.
testimony
firsthand writings, eyewitness accounts, and opinions by people, both lay and expert.
expert testimony
testimony from professionals who are trained to evaluate or report on a given topic.
lay testimony
testimony by non-experts to support materials.
statistics
quantified evidence that summarize, compare, and predict things, from batting averages to birthrates.
frequency
simply a count of the number of times something occurs.
percentage
quantified portion of a whole.
average
describes information according to its typical characteristics.
mean
the arithmetic average; sum of scores divided by the number of scores.
median
the center-most score in a distribution or the point above and below which 50 percent of the nine scores fall.
mode
the most frequently occurring score in the distribution.
cherry-pick
to selectively present only those statistics that buttress your point of view while ignoring competing data.
invention
selecting information to illustrate or prove your points.
primary research
first-hand research/surveys conducted by you.
secondary research
the vast world of information gathered by others.
database
a searchable place in which information is stored.
full-text database
where at least some of the records in the database contain the full text of articles.
invisible web
the large portion of the web that general search engines fail to find.