the outdoor marketplace or public square in ancient Greece where speakers would comment on public affairs.
small group communication
involves a small number of people who can see and speak directly with one another.
occurs between a speaker and a large audience of unknown people; receivers of message are not present with the speaker or are part of such an immense crowd that there is little or no interaction between speaker & listener.
speaker delivers a message with a specific purpose to an audience of people who are present during the delivery of the speech.
process of organizing the message, choosing words and sentence structure, and verbalizing the message.
trying to determine the needs, attitudes, and values of your audience before you begin speaking.
the content of the communication process; thoughts and ideas put into meaningful expressions.
the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next.
"being skilled and flexible about understanding a culture, learning more about it from your ongoing interactions with it, and gradually reshaping your thinking to be more sympathetic to the culture and to be more skilled and appropriate when interacting with others from the culture." - Thomas and Inkson
a highly systematic process of getting to know your listeners relative to the topic and the speech occasion.
clearly expresses the central idea of your speech; what you want to achieve with the speech.
illustrates the main points by clarifying, elaborating, and verifying the speaker's ideas.
serves to introduce the topic and the speaker and to alert audience members to your specific speech purpose..
public speaking anxiety (PSA)
fear or anxiety associated with either actual or anticipated communication to an audience as a speaker.
mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation.
the conscious act of recognizing, understanding, and accurately interpreting the messages communicated by others.
a listening style in which the receiver responds to messages that only interest him or her, the phenomenon that people often pay the most attention to things they already agree with and interpret them according to their own predispositions.
anything that competes for attention that you are trying to give to something else.
internal listening distraction
thoughts and feelings, both positive and negative that intrude on our attention.
listener decides either that they won't like what the speaker is going to say or that they know better.
supported by different sources, but it does not make claims beyond a reasonable point.
is gained when speaker is well prepared, honest, and respectful towards their audience.
our most enduring judgments or standards of what's good and bad in life, or what's important to us.
reckless disregard for the truth
you can be legally liable if it can be shown that you knew that what you were saying was false, but said it anyway.
speech designed to discredit, demean, and belittle those with whom one disagrees.
signals that speaker's incorruptibility; she or he will avoid compromising the truth for the sake of personal expediency.
generalizing about an apparent characteristic of a group and applying that generalization to all of its members.
any offensive communication - verbal or non-verbal - that is directed against people's racial, ethnic, religious, gender, or other characteristics.
"cut-and-paste" material from sources into your speech and represent it as your own.
copying material into your speech draft from a source and then changing or rearranging words and sentence structures here and there to make the material appear as if it were your own.
information that is likely to be known by many people, but such information must truly be widely disseminated.
permits the limited use of copyrighted works without permission for the purposes of scholarship, criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, and research.
selecting the speech topic to making decisions about how you will organize, word, and deliver it.
trying to uncover the audience's feelings and expectations (or disposition) towards the speech.
oversimplified and often severely distorted ideas about the innate nature of what it means to be male or female.
persons with disabilities (PWD)
sight, speech, visual impairments, or learning/comprehension disabilities of some members of your audience.
a social community whose values and style of communicating may or may not mesh with your own.
tend to emphasize the needs of the individual rather than those of the group.
personal identity, needs and desires are viewed as secondary to those of the larger group.
high-uncertainty avoidance cultures
tend to structure life more rigidly and formally for their members.
low-uncertainty avoidance cultures
more accepting of uncertainty in life and therefore allow more variation in individual behavior.
approach tasks systematically, preferring to do one thing at a time, and in organized fashion.
people rarely initiate discussions or actions, preferring to listen to what others have to say first.
designed to elicit a small range of specific answers supplied by the interviewer.
fixed alternative questions
contain a limited choice of answers, such as "yes", "no", or "sometimes".
also called "attitude scales"; measure the respondent's level of agreement or disagreement with specific issues.
to effect some degree of change in the audience's attitudes, beliefs, or even basic values (the latter being the hardest to change).
special occasion speeches
includes: speeches of introduction, speeches of acceptance, speeches of presentation, roasts and toasts, eulogies, and after-dinner speeches.
when you need to make a point about something that could happen in the future if certain things occurred.
testimony from professionals who are trained to evaluate or report on a given topic.
quantified evidence that summarize, compare, and predict things, from batting averages to birthrates.
the center-most score in a distribution or the point above and below which 50 percent of the nine scores fall.
to selectively present only those statistics that buttress your point of view while ignoring competing data.