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AP Govt - Ch 9: Campaigns and Elections (Magleby)
Terms in this set (25)
Staggered term (p242)
Not all offices are up for election at the same time; this occurs in the Senate where 1/3 of seats are up for reelection every two years.
Lame duck (p242)
A politician who cannot, or has announced he or she will not, run again.
An election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins.
An electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official.
Election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.
Electoral system used in electing the president and vice president, in which voters vote for electors pledged to cast their ballots for particular party's candidates.
Elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of the party's candidate is almost taken for granted.
The boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president.
the tendency in elections to focus on the personal attributes of a candidate, such as his/her strengths, weaknesses, background, experience, and visibility.
The period before any votes are cast when candidates compete to win early support from the elite of the party and to create a positive firs impression of their leadership skills.
a meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform.
national party convention
a national meeting of delegates elected at primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
Federal Election Commission (FEC)
A commission created by the 1974 amendments to the Federal Election Campaign Act to administer election reform laws. It consists of six commissioners appointed by president and confirmed by the Senate. Its duties include overseeing disclosure of campaign finance information and public funding of presidential elections, and enforcing contribution limits.
*Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA)
banned Soft Money, political ads need disclosure, banned unions and corporations from using soft money (overruled in Citizens United), & increased individual donation limit.
Contributions to a state or local party for party-building purposes.
Donations made to political candidates, party committees, or groups which, by law, are limited and must be declared.
Promoting a particular position or an issue paid for by interest groups or individuals but not candidates. Much issue advocacy is often electioneering for or against a candidate, and until 2004 had not been subject to any regulation.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
Groups that raise money from individuals and then distribute it in the form of contributions to candidates that the group supports. PAC must register with the FEC and report their donations and contributions to it. Individual contributions to a PA are limited up to $5000 per year and a PAC May give up to $5000 to a candidate for each election.
Independent expenditure-only PACs, they may accept donations of any size and can endorse candidates. Their contributions and expenditures must be periodically reported to the Federal Election Commission (FEC).
Interest groups organized under section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code may advertise for or against candidates. If their source of funding is corporations or unions, they have some restrictions on broadcast advertising. 527 organizations were important in recent elections.
Money spent by individuals or groups not associated with candidates to elect or defeat candidates for office.
Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
Govt limiting contributions to own campaigns & limiting independent expenditures was UNCONSTITUTIONAL because it violated people's freedom of speech; Court upheld limits on individual contributions, as well as the disclosure and reporting provisions.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010)
First Amendment prohibits the government from restricting independent political expenditures by corporations and unions; leads to SuperPACs
Motor voter act
Requires states to permit people to register to vote when they apply for a driver'a license.
Mandate theory of elections
The idea that the winning candidate has a mandate from the people to carry out his or her platforms and politics. Politicians like the theory better than political scientists do.
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