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William Hogarth

A painter who vividly portrayed all levels of eighteenth-century society and emphasized man's corrupt nature. His canvasses reveal corruption in high places; drunkenness in fashionable parlors and in city streets, and acts of cruelty, robbery, and murder.

George Whitefield

Man whose powerful preaching reached many souls for Christ.

Sir Christopher Wren

An architect who rebuilt many churches (including the famous St. Paul's Cathedral) , destroyed by the Great Fire of London, that later became masterpieces of the period.

Charles II

the Stuart monarch who was restored to the throne

bubonic plague and the Great Fire of London

two disastrous events that occurred during the reign of Charles II.

bubonic plague

Lasted from 1603-1665(peak) and killed over 150 000 people

1666; 3 days

Year of the Great Fire of London and time it lasted

Daniel Defoe and Samuel Pepys

Name two men whose journals provide accounts of the Great Fire of London


Literature that influenced English literature from the end of the 17th century to the first part of the 18th century


Great French dramatist and author of Tartuffe

John Dryden

Ruling poet of the age

John Locke

An influential prose writer and author of The Conduct of the Understanding

The Conduct of Understanding

''The last resort a man has recourse to in the conduct of himself is his understanding.''

James II

Successor of Charles II who was a Roman Catholic with tyrannical and lawless methods


Year that James II was replaced by William and Mary (protestant daughter of James); The Glorious Revolution

Queen Anne

Last monarch of the Stuart line who ruled from 1702 to 1714


Year that the Act of Union joins England, Scotland, and Wales as the United Kingdom of Great Britain

Industrial Revolution

Sparked by inventions such as the spinning jenny and the steam engine. Transformed London into a center of activity as the leading city to which men came from Ireland, Scotland, and all parts of England to seek their fortunes.


Informal, inexpensive clubs which became the meeting places for various social groups; over 3000 of these in London

Will's, White's, St. James's, The Cocoa Tree, The Grecian, Child's and Truby's, Lloyd's, and Jonathan's

Coffeehouses of London

Voltaire and Diderot

French philosophers who rejected the idea that man has a sinful nature and insisted that he has a divine nature within him

The Age of Reason

Period during which the popular religion was deism


a belief in an impersonal God, who, after creating the world, left it to run by natural laws and left man to take care of himself by using his intellect

William Blackstone

A famous lawyer who lamented the unholy nature of the Anglican church

Matthew Henry

A Welsh Presbyterian who wrote Commentary on the Bible,

Commentary on the Bible

a classic Bible study aid for almost three centuries

William Law

author of A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life

A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life

A widely read book which greatly influenced John Wesley

John Wesley and George Whitefield

Two men who preached and brought about great revivals

Selina, Countess Huntingdon

A notable woman of the time who had a great influence on the preaching of the gospel

William Wilberforce

The driving force in bringing about the abolition of slavery in England

Robert Raikes

An editor and newspaperman who started the Sunday school movement

John Howard

Dedicated his life to the reforming of prisons

William Carey

Began the modern missionary movement

Age of Pope

The first half of the 18th century

Augustan Age or the Neoclassical Age

Two other names for the Age of Pope

Age of Johnson

The second half of the 18th century

Jonathan Swift

the most prominent satirist of the time

journalism and novel

the two greatest literary contributions of the age

William Hogarth

Artist responsible for The Election: Canvassing


Artist responsible for The Rotunda at Ranelagh

William Hogarth

Artist responsible for Bribing a Voter

William Hogarth

Artist responsible for The Rake's Progress: The Arrest and The Prison

The Rake's Progress

Shows a young, wealthy man following a downward path of gambling and immorality until he loses all his money and is sent to one of London's overcrowded, poorly administered debtor's prison

William Hogarth

Artist responsible for The Cock Pit

journalistic essayists

Joseph Addison, Richard Steele, and Samuel Johnsonn

early novelists

Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson, Henry Fielding, Tobias Smolett, and Laurence Sterne


the most enduring popular genre of modern times

classics of the century

Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson, Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language, Blackstone's Commentaries, and Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

hymn writers of the 18th century

Isaac Watts, Philip Doddridge, Charles Wesley, Augustus Toplady, John Newton, and William Cowper

George Frederic Handel

German-born musician remembered for his English oratorios, usually based on Biblical subjects, settled in England in 1710. He was the composer of the Messiah

lyrical poetry

characterized by a positive attitude toward life, an awakening to feeling, a love for nature, and an emphasis on personal expression

pre-Romantic poets

William Cowper, Thomas Gray, Oliver Goldsmith, Robert Burns, and William Blake

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