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America-A Narrative History - Chapter 18 9th edition, vol 2 Big Business and Organized Labor Faulkner University - U.S. History II- Dr. D. Hicks

Congress Passes the Morrill Land Grant Act
(Gave Land to states for educational purposes)


Congress guarantees the construction of a transcontinental railroad


Homestead Act is Passed (Free Land West)


Lincoln Refuses to sign the Wade Davis Bill (Iron-Clad Oath)


Congress sets up the Freemen's Bureau


Lincoln Assinated

April 14th, 1865

Ku Klux Klan is organized


Congress passes Civil Rights Act


Congress passes Military Reconstruction Act


Congress passes the Tenure of Office Act (weakens president Andrew Johnson's ability to getrid of people without senate approval..)


Fourteenth Amendment is ratified (slaves are equal) no slaves


Congress impeaches Andrew Johnson (President) but the senate doesnt convict him


Compromise of 1877 ends Reconstuction (democrats and republicans make a compromise, democrats are promised federal troops will withdraw from states, electroal votes are taken into consideration, President Hayes wins.


Focus Question:
What fueled the growth of the post-Civil War economy?

The second industrial revolution
The postwar economy was characterized by large-scale industrial development and a burgeoning agriculture sector. The second Industrial Revolution was fueled by the creation of national transportation and communication systems, the use of electric power, and the application of scientific research to industrial processes. The federal government encouraged growth by imposing high tariffs on imported products and granting the railroad companies public land.

Focus Question:
What roles were played by leading entrepreneurs like John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and J. Pierpont Morgan?

The leading entrepreneurs were extraordinarily skilled at organizing and controlling industry. John D. Rockefeller eventually controlled nearly every facet of the oil industry, consolidating that control through trusts and holding companies. Andrew Carnegie, who believed that competition benefited both society and business, came to dominate the steel industry by buying struggling companies. J. Pierpont Morgan, an investment banker, not only controlled most of the nation's railroads but also bough Carnegies's steel interest in 1901, thereby creating the nations's first billion=dollar corporation.

Focus Question:
Who composed the labor force of the period, and what were labor's main grievances?

The labor force was largely composed of unskilled workers, including recent immigrants and growing numbers of women and children. Some children as young as eight years of age worked twelve hours a day in coal mines and southern mills. In hard times, business owners cut wages without discounting the rents they charged for company housing or the prices they charged in company stores.

Focus Question:
What led to the rise of labor unions?

It was difficult for unskilled workers to organize effectively. Strikebreakers were plentiful because new immigrants were desperate for work. Business owners often had recourse to state and local militias, which would be mobilized against strikers in the face of perceived anarchy. Craft unions made up of only skilled workers became more successful at organizing as the American Federation of Labor focused on concrete economic gains and better working conditions and avoided involvement in politics.

John D. Rockefeller (p.585)


Standard Oil Company of Ohio (p.585)


Andrew Carnegie (p.587)


J. Piermont Morgan (p.588)


Knights of Labor (p.593)


Samuel Gompers (p.596)


American Federation of Labor (p.597)


Homestead steel strike (p.598)


Pullman strike (p.598)


Eugene V. Debs (p.599)


Industrial Workers of the World (p.602)


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