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APUSH The Machine Age Key Terms
Terms in this set (66)
ulysses s. grant
an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869-1877); completion of transcontinental railroad & "black friday" crisis (crash of price of gold, causing financial ruin for many investors)
rutherford b. hayes
19th U.S. President (1877-1881); president as a result of the compromise of 1877; ended reconstruction and began the efforts that led to civil service reform
20th president (1881, assassinated in first year of presidency); was a half-breed; assassinated because he supported the civil service reform
21st president (1881-1885) elected president after the assassinated of garfield; signed the Pendleton Act; advocated civil service reform
22nd and 24th president (1885-1889; 1893-1897) Democrat who fought corruption; achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform
23rd President (1889-1893) Republican who introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars
credit mobilier scandal
the 1867-1868 scandal in which Union Pacific executives formed their own railroad construction company, then hired and overpaid themselves to build their own railroad
head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city.
ohio industrialist and organizer of McKinley's victory over Bryan in the election of 1896
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
leapt to fame in 1867 with The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County; coined the term "gilded age"
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain (sarcastically because of the corruption) to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
"hands-off" form of government
The combining of many firms engaged in the same type of business into one large corporation
A single company owns and controls the entire process from raw materials to the maufacture and sale of the finished product
A legal concept that allows one person, called a trustee, to manage another person's property
A way to increase profits, in which competing companies agreed secretly and informally to fix rates and share traffic.
discounts; a practice by which railroads would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear to be charging a flat rate for everyone
gospel of wealth
Carnegie justified monopolies through social Darwinism and argued that the wealthy had a God-given responsibility to carry out projects of civil philanthropy for the benefit of society
The idea that Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection and survival of the fittest should be applied to the marketplace
john d. rockefeller
Created the Standard Oil Company through the use of trusts/horizontal integration, vertical integration, hiring scientists, and being thorough and ruthless
A Scottish immigrant who grew to monopolize the steel industry through vertical integration
A man who used his profits from the steamboat business to merge local railroads into the NY Central RR.
Banker who took control of railroad industry through cutting fixed costs, eliminating competition and rebates, and establishing a "voting trust"
railroads became the first grand scale corporate model in am. Railroads implemented practices such as seperate managements by professionals, high productivity with lowest cost, mass production, and standardized parts. most of capital railroads used was provided in the for of gov subsidies which were given in order to promote westward expansion. as they expanded into the west, railroads became known as a metaphor for change and progress
Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote "rags to riches" books praising the values of hard work
(Woman's Christian Temperance Union); an organization of women intended to mold women into a political force. They vehemently opposed alcohol. They were largely unsuccessful in politics, however.
National American Woman Suffrage Association; an American women's rights organization; helped to pass woman suffrage legislation; the largest and most important suffrage organization in the United States, and was the primary promoter of women's right to vote; pushed for a constitutional amendment guaranteeing women's voting rights, and instrumental in winning the ratification of the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution
This welfare organization came to the US from England in 1880 and sought to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality
Spiritual organization meant to provide healthy activities for young workers in the cities
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor
lists of people not to hire, usually people associated with unions or rebels
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment
times when workers refuse to work until owners improve conditions
munn v. illinois
This 1876 Supreme Court case seemed like a victory for the Grangers movement and represented a step toward greater governmental regulation of the economy. The court decided that states had the right to regulate commerce within their states (particularly railroad and grain elevator companies)
wabash v. illinois
This 1886 case overturned the earlier Munn vs. Illinois case. In this case, the Supreme Court severely limited the right of states to regulate businesses that dealt with interstate commerce. This meant only the federal government had a power that had been granted to the states
interstate commerce act
Congress passed this law at the demand of farmers who sought to forbid price discrimination and other monopolistic practices of the railroads
sherman anti-trust act
law that made it illegal to create monopolies or trusts that restrained free trade, First federal action against monopolies
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
william jennings bryan
United States lawyer and politician who gave the Cross of Gold speech
Poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
old v. new immigrants
Old immigrants come from W and N Europe; New immigrants from S and E Europe and Russia; 2/3 stayed in cities
Industrial workers of the world; this radical union aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution and led several major strikes
in Pittsburgh, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued
sherman silver purchase act
Increased the amount of silver the gov. bought for coinage, but the money supply did not increase enough to satisfy silver supporters
civil service (pendleton) act
passed following the assassination of president James A. Garfield. This Act made it so that to get a government job one had to complete a series of tests. The Act also made it unlawful for any government worker to be fired based on political reasons.
william randolph hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow (sensationalist) journalism."
chinese exclusion act
Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
morril land grant
law passed by congress july 1862 awarding proceeds from the sale of public lands to states for the establishment of agricultural colleges
law passed by congress in may 1862 providing homesteads with 160 acres of free land in exchange for improving the land within five years of the grant
national banking act
act prohibiting state banks from issuing their won notes and forcing them to apply for federal charters
a railroad that connected the eastern United States to the western United States. The railroad firmly bonded the West Coast the Union, created a trade route to the far-east, and helped the western expansion
attempt to "americanize" the indians giving each tribe 160 acres; after 25 years this property would become theirs and they would become an american citizen
frederick jackson turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems ("Frontier Thesis")
battle of little bighorn
"cluster's last stand," Colonel George A. Custer and all his men were killed by Sioux Indians in Southern Montana
battle of wounded knee
A battle between the U.S. Army and the Dakota Sioux, in which several hundred Native Americans and 29 U.S. soldiers died. battle occurred because of the "ghost dance," which the US government outlawed and dispute where indian reservation land was split up
Political party devoted to improving the lives of laborers and raising inflation
groups of farmers of those in sympathy with farming issues, who lectured from town to town to educate people about agriculural and rural issues
The Patrons of Husbandry or farmers organized against railroad abuses
the Secretary of state under Lincoln (1861-1865). He was the person who brokered the purchase of the Alaska territory from Russia. Many people thought he was fool because they did not recognize the value of Alaska.
acres of diamonds
The late 1800's witnessed a giant gap in wealth and the rich and tycoons were under some criticism. Russel Conwell, a pastor, said the whole nation was nothing but a giant mess o opportunities to get rich or a bunch of "Acres of Diamonds" that were up for grabs. He basically said everybody had the same opportunity to get rich so you cannot fault those who made it big. He defended the wealthy. HE also got rich himself speaking about and writing books his theory on getting rich.
the powerful leader of the Knights of Labor
Haymarket Square, Chicago
Many people either arguing for the workers or against immigrants as a whole, since the violent parties were often made up of immigrants. 8 people (police and protestors) died.
1 company controlling an entire industry
cross of gold speech
William Jennings Bryan arguing that the gold standard, of which our currency was based on, favored the rich. We should back our money by silver. It never happened, but it made him famous.
knights of labor
they were a growing powerful labor union that argued for basic worker rights. Higher pay and less hours. Better worker conditions, etc. The union lost momentum when strikes turned violent
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