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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. ETC without )₂
  2. Fats
  3. FAD
  4. Net reaction of photosynthesis
  5. Substrate Level Phosphorylation
  1. a 6CO₂ + 2H₂O + energy --> C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂
  2. b - without oxygen, ETC becomes backlogged with electrons and NAD⁺ can't be regenerated to continue glycolysis without lactic acid fermentation occuring
    - Cyanide and dinitrophenol works the same way.
    - Cyanide blocks the transfer of electrons from Cytochrome a₃ to O₂
    - Dinitrophenol uncouples the electron transport chain from the proton gradient established across the inner mitochondrial membrane
  3. c flavin adenine dinucleotide
  4. d - ATP synthesis is directly coupled with the degradation of glucose without the participation of an intermediate molecule like NAD⁺
  5. e - stored in adipose tissue in the form of triglyceride
    - when needed, they are hydrolyzed by lipases to fatty acids and glycerol, and are carried by the blood to other tissues for oxidation
    - glycerol can be converted into PGAL
    - a fatty acid must be "activated" first in the cytoplasm, this requires 2 ATP
    - on active, it is transorted into mitochondrion and taken through a series of "beta-oxidation cycles" that convert it into two carbon fragments, then converted to acetyl CoA, which enter TCA cycle.
    - each round of beta oxidation generates 1 NADH and 1 FADH₂
    -fats yield the most ATP per gram

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - ATP is produced when high energy potential electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH₂ to oxygen by a series of carrier molecules located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
    - as the electrons are transferred from carrier to carrier, free energy is released
    - later this energy is used to form ATP
  2. - anaerobic: pyruvate is reduced through fermentation
    - aerobic: pyruvate is further oxidized during cell respiration in mitochondria
  3. - nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
    - the reduced form, NADPH, is found in plant cells only
  4. - pyruvate formed during glycolysis is transported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix where it is carboxylated (lost a CO₂), and the remaining acetyl group is transfered to coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA.
    - in process, NAD⁺ is reduced to NADH
    - pyruvate + coenzyme A -- acetyl CoA
  5. - last carrier of the ETC
    - passes its electron to the final eectron acceptor, O₂
    - in addition, O₂ picks up a pair of hydrogen ions from the surrounding medium and forms water
    - 2H⁺ + 2e⁻ + ½ O₂ --> H₂O

5 True/False questions

  1. Electron Transport Chain (ETC)- categorized into three large protein complexes:
    a) NADH dehydrogenase
    b) the b-c₁ complex
    c) cytochrome oxidase

          

  2. Reduction- gain of electrons

          

  3. Proteins- stored in adipose tissue in the form of triglyceride
    - when needed, they are hydrolyzed by lipases to fatty acids and glycerol, and are carried by the blood to other tissues for oxidation
    - glycerol can be converted into PGAL
    - a fatty acid must be "activated" first in the cytoplasm, this requires 2 ATP
    - on active, it is transorted into mitochondrion and taken through a series of "beta-oxidation cycles" that convert it into two carbon fragments, then converted to acetyl CoA, which enter TCA cycle.
    - each round of beta oxidation generates 1 NADH and 1 FADH₂
    -fats yield the most ATP per gram

          

  4. Glycolytic Pathway- fructose 1,6-diphosphate is split into dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (PGAL)
    - dihydroxyacetone is isomerized into PGAL
    - two molecules of PGAL is formed per molecule of glucose
    - 1 glucose = 2 pyruvate
    - net production of 2 ATP/mole of glucose (4 generated, 2 used up)

          

  5. Fermentation- gain of electrons