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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Alternate Energy Sources
  2. FAD
  3. Oxidative Phosphorylation
  4. Glycolysis
  5. Substrate Level Phosphorylation
  1. a flavin adenine dinucleotide
  2. b - ATP synthesis is directly coupled with the degradation of glucose without the participation of an intermediate molecule like NAD⁺
  3. c - ATP is produced when high energy potential electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH₂ to oxygen by a series of carrier molecules located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
    - as the electrons are transferred from carrier to carrier, free energy is released
    - later this energy is used to form ATP
  4. d - series of reactions that lead to the oxidative breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, the production of ATP and reduction of NAD⁺ into NADH
    - occurs in cytoplasm
    - mediated by specific enzymes
  5. e - when glucose supplies run low, the body uses these (in order): carbohydrates, fats and proteins
    - these are first converted to either glucose or glucose intermediates, which can be degraded in the glycolytic pathway and TCA cycle

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - from proton gradient
    - drives H+ back across inner membrane and into the matrix
    - membrane is impermeable to ions, so H⁺ must flow through specialized channels provided by enzyme complexes called ATP synthetases
    - as H⁺ pass through ATP synthetases, energy is released to allow for the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP
    - oxidative phosphorylation: coupling of oxidation of NADH with phosphorylation of ADP
  2. - occurs in certain fungi and bacteria and in human muscle cells during strenuous activity
    - happens when oxygen supply to muscle cells lags behind the rate of glucose catabolism
    - pyruvate generated is reduced to lactic acid, which can lower blood pH if accumulated, eventually becomes muscle fatigue
    - oxygen debt: the amount of oxygen needed to oxidize lactic acid back to pyruvate and enters cellular respiration
  3. glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2 NAD⁺

    -->

    2 pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H⁺ + 2H₂O
  4. - known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    - begins when the two carbon acetyl group from acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate, a four carbon molecule, to form the six carbon citrate
    - 2CO₂ are released, oxaloacetate is regenerated to use for another turn of the cycle
    - 1 cycle = 1 ATP produced by substrate level phosporylation via GTP intermediate
    - electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain
  5. - there are energy losses as electrons are transferred from one complex to the next, this energy is then used to synthesize 1 ATP per complex
    - since we have 3 complexes, we generate 3 ATP
    - NADH delivers its electrons to NADH dehydrogenase complex, so for each NADH = 3 ATP
    - FADH₂ bypasses the NADH dehydrogenase complex and delivers directly to carrier Q (ubiquinone), which is between complex 1 and 2, so each FADH₂ = 2 ATP

5 True/False questions

  1. Glucose Catabolismoccurs in two stages:
    a) glycolysis
    b) cellular respiration

          

  2. Net reaction of Citric Acid Cycle per glucose molecule2 Acetyl CoA + 6 NAD⁺ + 2 FAD + 2 ATP + 2Pi + 4H₂O

    -->

    4 CO₂ + 6 NADH + 2 FADH₂ + 2 ATP + 4 H⁺ + 2 CoA

          

  3. Cellular Respiration- most efficient catabolic pathway to harvest energy stored in glucose
    - occurs in mitochondrion and catalyzed by reaction specific enzymes
    - produces 36-38 ATP
    - aerobic, O₂ acts as the final acceptor of electrons that are passed from carrier to carrier during the final stage of glucose oxidation
    - three stages: pyruvate decarboxylation, citric acid cycle and electron transport chain

          

  4. Pyruvate Decarboxylation- pyruvate formed during glycolysis is transported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix where it is carboxylated (lost a CO₂), and the remaining acetyl group is transfered to coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA.
    - in process, NAD⁺ is reduced to NADH
    - pyruvate + coenzyme A -- acetyl CoA

          

  5. NAD⁺- nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
    - the reduced form, NADPH, is found in plant cells only