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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Fate of Pyruvate
  2. Net reaction of photosynthesis
  3. Alcohol Fermentation
  4. Autotrophic
  5. Fats
  1. a - green plants
    - convert sunlight into bond energy stored in the bonds of organic compounds (glucose) in the anabolic process of photosythesis
    - don't need an exogenous supply of organic compounds
  2. b - occurs in yeast and bacteria only
    - pyruvate produced in glycolysis is decarboxylated to acetaldehyde, then reduced by NADH in step 5 of glycolysis to yield ethanol
    - pyruvate --> acetaldehyde --> ethanol
  3. c 6CO₂ + 2H₂O + energy --> C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂
  4. d - stored in adipose tissue in the form of triglyceride
    - when needed, they are hydrolyzed by lipases to fatty acids and glycerol, and are carried by the blood to other tissues for oxidation
    - glycerol can be converted into PGAL
    - a fatty acid must be "activated" first in the cytoplasm, this requires 2 ATP
    - on active, it is transorted into mitochondrion and taken through a series of "beta-oxidation cycles" that convert it into two carbon fragments, then converted to acetyl CoA, which enter TCA cycle.
    - each round of beta oxidation generates 1 NADH and 1 FADH₂
    -fats yield the most ATP per gram
  5. e - anaerobic: pyruvate is reduced through fermentation
    - aerobic: pyruvate is further oxidized during cell respiration in mitochondria

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - series of reactions that lead to the oxidative breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, the production of ATP and reduction of NAD⁺ into NADH
    - occurs in cytoplasm
    - mediated by specific enzymes
  2. glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2 NAD⁺

    -->

    2 pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H⁺ + 2H₂O
  3. 2 Acetyl CoA + 6 NAD⁺ + 2 FAD + 2 ATP + 2Pi + 4H₂O

    -->

    4 CO₂ + 6 NADH + 2 FADH₂ + 2 ATP + 4 H⁺ + 2 CoA
  4. - molecular carriers used by the cell to shuttle energy between reactions
    - ATP, NAD⁺, FAD
  5. - adenosine diphosphate
    - Pi: inorganic phosphate
    - ATP --> ADP + Pi + 7 kcal/mole
    - the 7 kcal/mole provides energy for endergonic/endothermic reactions like muscle contraction, motility and active transport across plasma membranes

5 True/False questions

  1. Oxidative Phosphorylation- ATP is produced when high energy potential electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH₂ to oxygen by a series of carrier molecules located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
    - as the electrons are transferred from carrier to carrier, free energy is released
    - later this energy is used to form ATP

          

  2. ETC without )₂- without oxygen, ETC becomes backlogged with electrons and NAD⁺ can't be regenerated to continue glycolysis without lactic acid fermentation occuring
    - Cyanide and dinitrophenol works the same way.
    - Cyanide blocks the transfer of electrons from Cytochrome a₃ to O₂
    - Dinitrophenol uncouples the electron transport chain from the proton gradient established across the inner mitochondrial membrane

          

  3. Review of Glucose Catabolismoccurs in two stages:
    a) glycolysis
    b) cellular respiration

          

  4. The Citric Acid Cyle (TCA Cycle)- known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    - begins when the two carbon acetyl group from acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate, a four carbon molecule, to form the six carbon citrate
    - 2CO₂ are released, oxaloacetate is regenerated to use for another turn of the cycle
    - 1 cycle = 1 ATP produced by substrate level phosporylation via GTP intermediate
    - electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain

          

  5. Oxidation- loss of an electron
    - NAD⁺, FAD, NADP⁺ are referred to as oxidizing agents because they cause other molecules to lose electrons and undergo oxidation (while they're reduced NADH, FADH₂, NADPH)