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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. NADP⁺
  2. The Citric Acid Cyle continued
  3. Pyruvate Decarboxylation
  4. Fate of Pyruvate
  5. Glucose Catabolism - event and location
  1. a - electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain, where ATP is produced via oxidative phosporylation
    - each molecule of glucose = 2 pyruvates
    2x3 NADH --> 6 NADH
    2x1 FADH₂ --> 2 FADH₂
    2x1 GTP (ATP) --> 2 ATP
  2. b Event --> Location

    glycolysis -- cytoplasm
    fermentation -- cytoplasm
    pyruvate to acetyl CoA -- mitochondrial matrix
    TCA cycle -- mitochondrial matrix
    ETC - inner mintochondrial matrix
  3. c - pyruvate formed during glycolysis is transported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix where it is carboxylated (lost a CO₂), and the remaining acetyl group is transfered to coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA.
    - in process, NAD⁺ is reduced to NADH
    - pyruvate + coenzyme A -- acetyl CoA
  4. d - nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
    - the reduced form, NADPH, is found in plant cells only
  5. e - anaerobic: pyruvate is reduced through fermentation
    - aerobic: pyruvate is further oxidized during cell respiration in mitochondria

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - occurs in yeast and bacteria only
    - pyruvate produced in glycolysis is decarboxylated to acetaldehyde, then reduced by NADH in step 5 of glycolysis to yield ethanol
    - pyruvate --> acetaldehyde --> ethanol
  2. - stored in adipose tissue in the form of triglyceride
    - when needed, they are hydrolyzed by lipases to fatty acids and glycerol, and are carried by the blood to other tissues for oxidation
    - glycerol can be converted into PGAL
    - a fatty acid must be "activated" first in the cytoplasm, this requires 2 ATP
    - on active, it is transorted into mitochondrion and taken through a series of "beta-oxidation cycles" that convert it into two carbon fragments, then converted to acetyl CoA, which enter TCA cycle.
    - each round of beta oxidation generates 1 NADH and 1 FADH₂
    -fats yield the most ATP per gram
  3. - most efficient catabolic pathway to harvest energy stored in glucose
    - occurs in mitochondrion and catalyzed by reaction specific enzymes
    - produces 36-38 ATP
    - aerobic, O₂ acts as the final acceptor of electrons that are passed from carrier to carrier during the final stage of glucose oxidation
    - three stages: pyruvate decarboxylation, citric acid cycle and electron transport chain
  4. ...
  5. - adenosine monophosphate
    - PPi: phyrophosphate
    - ATP --> AMP + PPi + 7 kcal/mole

5 True/False questions

  1. Carbohydrates- disaccharides are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides
    - then converted into glucose or glycolytic intermediates
    - glycogen in the liver can be converted into glucose 6-phosphate, a glycolytic intermediate

          

  2. Lactic Acid Fermentation- occurs in yeast and bacteria only
    - pyruvate produced in glycolysis is decarboxylated to acetaldehyde, then reduced by NADH in step 5 of glycolysis to yield ethanol
    - pyruvate --> acetaldehyde --> ethanol

          

  3. Fermentation- gain of electrons

          

  4. FMN (flavin mononuclotide)- the sum total of all chemical reactions that take place in a cell
    - either anabolic (require energy) or catabolic (release energy)

          

  5. ETC without )₂- last carrier of the ETC
    - passes its electron to the final eectron acceptor, O₂
    - in addition, O₂ picks up a pair of hydrogen ions from the surrounding medium and forms water
    - 2H⁺ + 2e⁻ + ½ O₂ --> H₂O