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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Fate of Pyruvate
  2. The Citric Acid Cyle (TCA Cycle)
  3. Cellular Metabolism
  4. ETC without )₂
  5. Pyruvate Decarboxylation
  1. a - without oxygen, ETC becomes backlogged with electrons and NAD⁺ can't be regenerated to continue glycolysis without lactic acid fermentation occuring
    - Cyanide and dinitrophenol works the same way.
    - Cyanide blocks the transfer of electrons from Cytochrome a₃ to O₂
    - Dinitrophenol uncouples the electron transport chain from the proton gradient established across the inner mitochondrial membrane
  2. b - known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    - begins when the two carbon acetyl group from acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate, a four carbon molecule, to form the six carbon citrate
    - 2CO₂ are released, oxaloacetate is regenerated to use for another turn of the cycle
    - 1 cycle = 1 ATP produced by substrate level phosporylation via GTP intermediate
    - electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain
  3. c - anaerobic: pyruvate is reduced through fermentation
    - aerobic: pyruvate is further oxidized during cell respiration in mitochondria
  4. d - pyruvate formed during glycolysis is transported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix where it is carboxylated (lost a CO₂), and the remaining acetyl group is transfered to coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA.
    - in process, NAD⁺ is reduced to NADH
    - pyruvate + coenzyme A -- acetyl CoA
  5. e - the sum total of all chemical reactions that take place in a cell
    - either anabolic (require energy) or catabolic (release energy)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - most of the molecules of the ETC
    - electron carriers that resemble hemoglobin in structure of their active site
    - functional unit contains a central iron atom, which is capable of undergoing a reversible redox reaction
  2. occurs in two stages:
    a) glycolysis
    b) cellular respiration
  3. - disaccharides are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides
    - then converted into glucose or glycolytic intermediates
    - glycogen in the liver can be converted into glucose 6-phosphate, a glycolytic intermediate
  4. - most efficient catabolic pathway to harvest energy stored in glucose
    - occurs in mitochondrion and catalyzed by reaction specific enzymes
    - produces 36-38 ATP
    - aerobic, O₂ acts as the final acceptor of electrons that are passed from carrier to carrier during the final stage of glucose oxidation
    - three stages: pyruvate decarboxylation, citric acid cycle and electron transport chain
  5. - fructose 1,6-diphosphate is split into dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (PGAL)
    - dihydroxyacetone is isomerized into PGAL
    - two molecules of PGAL is formed per molecule of glucose
    - 1 glucose = 2 pyruvate
    - net production of 2 ATP/mole of glucose (4 generated, 2 used up)

5 True/False questions

  1. ATP Generation and the Proton Pump6CO₂ + 2H₂O + energy --> C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂

          

  2. AMP- adenosine monophosphate
    - PPi: phyrophosphate
    - ATP --> AMP + PPi + 7 kcal/mole

          

  3. Fermentation- regeneration NAD⁺ to continue glycolysis without O₂
    - reduce pyruvate to ethanol or lactic acid
    - fermentation produces only 2 ATP per glucose molecule

          

  4. ADP- adenosine monophosphate
    - PPi: phyrophosphate
    - ATP --> AMP + PPi + 7 kcal/mole

          

  5. Net reaction of Citric Acid Cycle per glucose molecule2 Acetyl CoA + 6 NAD⁺ + 2 FAD + 2 ATP + 2Pi + 4H₂O

    -->

    4 CO₂ + 6 NADH + 2 FADH₂ + 2 ATP + 4 H⁺ + 2 CoA