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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Alternate Energy Sources
  2. Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
  3. ADP
  4. Oxidative Phosphorylation
  5. Cytochromes
  1. a - adenosine diphosphate
    - Pi: inorganic phosphate
    - ATP --> ADP + Pi + 7 kcal/mole
    - the 7 kcal/mole provides energy for endergonic/endothermic reactions like muscle contraction, motility and active transport across plasma membranes
  2. b - a complex carrier mechanism located on the inside of the inner mitochondrial membrane
    - two parts: electron transfer and ATP generation + the proton pump
  3. c - most of the molecules of the ETC
    - electron carriers that resemble hemoglobin in structure of their active site
    - functional unit contains a central iron atom, which is capable of undergoing a reversible redox reaction
  4. d - when glucose supplies run low, the body uses these (in order): carbohydrates, fats and proteins
    - these are first converted to either glucose or glucose intermediates, which can be degraded in the glycolytic pathway and TCA cycle
  5. e - ATP is produced when high energy potential electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH₂ to oxygen by a series of carrier molecules located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
    - as the electrons are transferred from carrier to carrier, free energy is released
    - later this energy is used to form ATP

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - anaerobic: pyruvate is reduced through fermentation
    - aerobic: pyruvate is further oxidized during cell respiration in mitochondria
  2. - green plants
    - convert sunlight into bond energy stored in the bonds of organic compounds (glucose) in the anabolic process of photosythesis
    - don't need an exogenous supply of organic compounds
  3. - adenosine monophosphate
    - PPi: phyrophosphate
    - ATP --> AMP + PPi + 7 kcal/mole
  4. - NAD⁺, FAD, NADP⁺
    - transport the high energy electrons of the hydrogen atoms to a series of carrier moelcules on the inner mitochondrial membrane (electron transport chain)
  5. - obtain energy catabolically
    - break down organic nutrients that must be ingested

5 True/False questions

  1. Proton Gradient- as NADH passes its electrons to the ETC, free H⁺ are released and accumulate in mitochondrial matrix
    - ETC pumps these ions out of the matrix, across the inner mitochondrial membrane and into intermembrane space at each of the three protein complexes
    - the continuous translocation of H⁺ creates a positively charged acidic environment in the intermembrane space


  2. Net reaction of photosynthesisglucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2 NAD⁺


    2 pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H⁺ + 2H₂O


  3. Fermentation- regeneration NAD⁺ to continue glycolysis without O₂
    - reduce pyruvate to ethanol or lactic acid
    - fermentation produces only 2 ATP per glucose molecule


  4. Reduction- gain of electrons


  5. Alcohol Fermentation- occurs in yeast and bacteria only
    - pyruvate produced in glycolysis is decarboxylated to acetaldehyde, then reduced by NADH in step 5 of glycolysis to yield ethanol
    - pyruvate --> acetaldehyde --> ethanol