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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. The Citric Acid Cyle (TCA Cycle)
  2. Proteins
  3. NAD⁺
  4. Cellular Respiration
  5. Glucose Catabolism
  1. a - most efficient catabolic pathway to harvest energy stored in glucose
    - occurs in mitochondrion and catalyzed by reaction specific enzymes
    - produces 36-38 ATP
    - aerobic, O₂ acts as the final acceptor of electrons that are passed from carrier to carrier during the final stage of glucose oxidation
    - three stages: pyruvate decarboxylation, citric acid cycle and electron transport chain
  2. b - the body degrades amino acids only when there isn't enough carbs available
    - most amino acids undergo a transamination reaction where they lose an amino group to form an alpha-keto acid
    - carbon atoms of most amino acids are converted into acetyl CoA, pyruvate or one of the intermediates of the citric acid cycle
  3. c nicotinamide adenine dinuclotide
  4. d occurs in two stages:
    a) glycolysis
    b) cellular respiration
  5. e - known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    - begins when the two carbon acetyl group from acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate, a four carbon molecule, to form the six carbon citrate
    - 2CO₂ are released, oxaloacetate is regenerated to use for another turn of the cycle
    - 1 cycle = 1 ATP produced by substrate level phosporylation via GTP intermediate
    - electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - as NADH passes its electrons to the ETC, free H⁺ are released and accumulate in mitochondrial matrix
    - ETC pumps these ions out of the matrix, across the inner mitochondrial membrane and into intermembrane space at each of the three protein complexes
    - the continuous translocation of H⁺ creates a positively charged acidic environment in the intermembrane space
  2. 6CO₂ + 2H₂O + energy --> C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂
  3. - nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
    - the reduced form, NADPH, is found in plant cells only
  4. - adenosine triphosphate
    - cell's main energy currency
    - synthesized during glucose catabolism
    - composed of nitrogenous base adenine, sugar ribose and three weakly linked phosphate groups
    - energy of ATP is stored in these covalent bonds (high-energy bonds)
  5. - from proton gradient
    - drives H+ back across inner membrane and into the matrix
    - membrane is impermeable to ions, so H⁺ must flow through specialized channels provided by enzyme complexes called ATP synthetases
    - as H⁺ pass through ATP synthetases, energy is released to allow for the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP
    - oxidative phosphorylation: coupling of oxidation of NADH with phosphorylation of ADP

5 True/False questions

  1. Net reaction of Citric Acid Cycle per glucose molecule- known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    - begins when the two carbon acetyl group from acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate, a four carbon molecule, to form the six carbon citrate
    - 2CO₂ are released, oxaloacetate is regenerated to use for another turn of the cycle
    - 1 cycle = 1 ATP produced by substrate level phosporylation via GTP intermediate
    - electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain

          

  2. Autotrophic- green plants
    - convert sunlight into bond energy stored in the bonds of organic compounds (glucose) in the anabolic process of photosythesis
    - don't need an exogenous supply of organic compounds

          

  3. Cytochrome a₃- last carrier of the ETC
    - passes its electron to the final eectron acceptor, O₂
    - in addition, O₂ picks up a pair of hydrogen ions from the surrounding medium and forms water
    - 2H⁺ + 2e⁻ + ½ O₂ --> H₂O

          

  4. ADP- adenosine triphosphate
    - cell's main energy currency
    - synthesized during glucose catabolism
    - composed of nitrogenous base adenine, sugar ribose and three weakly linked phosphate groups
    - energy of ATP is stored in these covalent bonds (high-energy bonds)

          

  5. The Citric Acid Cyle continued- known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    - begins when the two carbon acetyl group from acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate, a four carbon molecule, to form the six carbon citrate
    - 2CO₂ are released, oxaloacetate is regenerated to use for another turn of the cycle
    - 1 cycle = 1 ATP produced by substrate level phosporylation via GTP intermediate
    - electrons are transferred to NAD⁺ and FAD, generating NADH and FADH₂, which transport electrons to electron transport chain

          

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