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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Binary Fission
  2. Corona Radiata
  3. Chromosome Movement
  4. Cell Division
  5. Stages of Mitosis
  1. a - prokaryotes' way of of cell division
    - a type of asexual reproduction
    - splits into two equal halves, each daughter cell receives a complete copy of the original chromosome
  2. b PMAT:
    a) Prophase
    b) Metaphase
    c) Anaphase
    d) Telophase
  3. c - outer layer of the oocyte cell membrane
  4. d - dependent on these cytoplasmic organelles
    - centrioles: found in pairs, cylindrical organelles
    - centrosome: an area outside the interphase nucleus
    - spindle fibers: composed of microtubules, appears near each pair of centrioles, radiate outward.
    - asters: spidle fibers in radiating structure
    - spindle apparatus: asters extending toward the center of the nucleus, shortens to move chromosomes toward
    opposite poles of the cell during the later stages of mitosis
  5. e - a process where a cell doubles its organelles and cytoplasm, replicates its DNA and then divides in two
    - unicellular organism: reproduction
    - multicellular organism: growth, development & replace old cells

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - development of an unfertilized egg into an adult organism
    - occurs naturally in certain lower organisms (bees and ants, some salamander)
    - eggs of some organisms can be induced to develop parthenogenetically (not done naturally)
    - since the organism develops from a haploid cell, all of its cells will be haploid
  2. - spermatids after a series of changes, becomes a mature sperm
    - mature sperm is an elongated cell with a head, neck, body and tail
    - head consists almost entirely of the nucleus
    - tail (flagellum) propels the sperm
    - mitochondria in the neck and body provide energy for locomotion
  3. - site of fetal development
  4. - mixed with sperm, aids in sperm transport by lubricating passageways
    - semen: sperm + seminal fluid
    - produced by:
    a) seminal vesicles: fructose-rich fluid, serves as energy source
    b) prostate gland: alkaline milky fluid to protect from acidic environment in female's reproductive tract
    c) bulbourethral glands: small amount of viscous fluid, function unknown
  5. - hard layer that surrounds the ovum cell membrane
    - prevents multiple fertilizations

5 True/False questions

  1. Acrosome- cap-like structure, over the anterior half of mature sperm's head
    - derived from Golgi apparatus
    - contains enzymes to penetrate the tough outer covering of the ovum
    - once in contact with ovum cell membrane, sperm forms a tubelike structure called the acrosomal process
    - acrosomal process extends and fuses with ovum and enters the ovum's cytoplasm

          

  2. Telophase I- a nuclear membrane forms around each new nucleus
    - each chromosomes still consists of sister chromatids joined at the centromere
    - cells divide into two daughter cells
    - between cell divisions, there might be "interkinesis", a short rest period where chromosomes partically uncoil

          

  3. Anaphase II- sister chromatids are pulled to opposite poles by the spindle fibers

          

  4. Meiosis II- doesn't occur until fertilization
    - triggered when zona pellucida and corona radiata are penetrated by a sperm cell
    - fertilization yields two haploid cells, a mature ovum and another polar body
    - the mature ovum is a large cell containing a lot of cytoplasm, RNA, organelles and nutrients needed by a developing embryo

          

  5. Dizygotic (fraternal) Twin- result when a single zygote splits into two embryos
    - if splitting occurs at the two-cell stage of development, embryos will have separate chorions and separate placentas
    - if it occurs at blastula stage, embryos only have one chorionic sac and share a placenta (and probably amnion)