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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Asexual Reproduction
  2. Parthenogenesis
  3. Meiosis II
  4. Monozygotic (identical) Twins
  5. Vaginal Canal
  1. a - development of an unfertilized egg into an adult organism
    - occurs naturally in certain lower organisms (bees and ants, some salamander)
    - eggs of some organisms can be induced to develop parthenogenetically (not done naturally)
    - since the organism develops from a haploid cell, all of its cells will be haploid
  2. b - essentially genetic carbon copies of parent cells
    - identical to parent cells except for random mutations
    - different types: binary fission, budding, regeneration, parthenogenesis
  3. c - result when a single zygote splits into two embryos
    - if splitting occurs at the two-cell stage of development, embryos will have separate chorions and separate placentas
    - if it occurs at blastula stage, embryos only have one chorionic sac and share a placenta (and probably amnion)
  4. d - doesn't occur until fertilization
    - triggered when zona pellucida and corona radiata are penetrated by a sperm cell
    - fertilization yields two haploid cells, a mature ovum and another polar body
    - the mature ovum is a large cell containing a lot of cytoplasm, RNA, organelles and nutrients needed by a developing embryo
  5. e - site of sperm deposition during intercourse
    - passageway through which a baby is expelled during childbirth

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - a process where a cell doubles its organelles and cytoplasm, replicates its DNA and then divides in two
    - unicellular organism: reproduction
    - multicellular organism: growth, development & replace old cells
  2. - dependent on these cytoplasmic organelles
    - centrioles: found in pairs, cylindrical organelles
    - centrosome: an area outside the interphase nucleus
    - spindle fibers: composed of microtubules, appears near each pair of centrioles, radiate outward.
    - asters: spidle fibers in radiating structure
    - spindle apparatus: asters extending toward the center of the nucleus, shortens to move chromosomes toward
    opposite poles of the cell during the later stages of mitosis
  3. - once a month, an immature ovum is released from the ovary into the abdominal cavity and drawn into the nearby fallopian tube
    - inner surface of the fallopian tube is lined with cilia that move the ovum into and along the tube and toward the uterus
    - mammalian female's reproductive and excretory systems are distinct from one another (urethra and vagina aren't connected)
  4. - mixed with sperm, aids in sperm transport by lubricating passageways
    - semen: sperm + seminal fluid
    - produced by:
    a) seminal vesicles: fructose-rich fluid, serves as energy source
    b) prostate gland: alkaline milky fluid to protect from acidic environment in female's reproductive tract
    c) bulbourethral glands: small amount of viscous fluid, function unknown
  5. - the regrowth of a lost or injured body part
    - replacement of cells occurs by mitosis
    - ex: hydra and starfish
    - in higher animals, regeneration is usually limited to the healing of tissues
    - some internal organs (liver) can regenerate considerably as long as part of the organ remains viable

5 True/False questions

  1. Follicles- female gonads
    - found in the abdominal cavity
    - produce eggs (ova)
    - secrete esterogen and progesterone
    - consist of thousands of follicles

          

  2. Chromatin- granular DNA during interphase

          

  3. Ovaries- site of fetal development

          

  4. Prophase I- homologous chromosomes come together and intertwine
    - at this stage, chromosome consists of two sister chromatids
    - where recombination and crossing over happens, responsible for increased genetic diversity

          

  5. Homologous Chromosomeschromosomes that code for the same trait, one inherited from each parent