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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Seminal Fluid
  2. Zona Pellucida
  3. Dizygotic (fraternal) Twin
  4. Fertilization
  5. Ovulation and Menopause
  1. a - inner layer of the oocyte cell membrane
  2. b - happened 12-24 hours after ovulation
    - occurs in the lateral, widest portion of the fallopian tube
    - sperm travels through vaginal canal, cervix, uterus, and into the fallopian tubes to reach the ovum
    - sperm penetrates corona radiata, then zona pellucida, contact with ovum cell membrane, become acrosomal process, fuse sperm with ovum
    - sperm nucleus enters ovum's cytoplasm and ovum completes meiosis II
  3. c - women ovulate about once every four weeks
    - menapause occurs between age 45 and 50
    - during menopause, ovaries become less sensitive to the hormones that stimulate follicle development (FSH and LH), and eventually they atrophy
    - remaining follicles disappear, estrogen and progesterone levels greatly decline and ovulation stops
  4. d - mixed with sperm, aids in sperm transport by lubricating passageways
    - semen: sperm + seminal fluid
    - produced by:
    a) seminal vesicles: fructose-rich fluid, serves as energy source
    b) prostate gland: alkaline milky fluid to protect from acidic environment in female's reproductive tract
    c) bulbourethral glands: small amount of viscous fluid, function unknown
  5. e - results when two ova are released in one ovarian cycle
    - fertilized by two different sperm
    - two embryos implant in the uterine wall individually
    - each develops its own placenta, amnion and chorion
    - share characteristics in the level of siblings

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - immature ova
    - diploid cells that form by mitosis in the ovary
    - at birth, all of the primary oocyte that a female will produce during her lifetime are already in her ovaries
  2. - granular DNA during interphase
  3. - testes contain two functional components: seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells (cells of Leydig)
    - sperm are produced in seminiferous tubules, nourished by Sertoli cells
    - interstitial cells secrete testosterone and anderogens
    - testes have to be 2-4°C lower than body temperature
  4. - dependent on these cytoplasmic organelles
    - centrioles: found in pairs, cylindrical organelles
    - centrosome: an area outside the interphase nucleus
    - spindle fibers: composed of microtubules, appears near each pair of centrioles, radiate outward.
    - asters: spidle fibers in radiating structure
    - spindle apparatus: asters extending toward the center of the nucleus, shortens to move chromosomes toward
    opposite poles of the cell during the later stages of mitosis
  5. - production of female gametes
    - occurs in the ovarian follicles
    - one primary oocyte completes meiosis I per month after menarche
    - yields two secondary oocyte and a polar body
    - secondary oocyte is expelled from the follicle during ovulation
    - meiosis II doesn't occur till fertilization

5 True/False questions

  1. G₁ Stage (presynthetic gap)- cell continues to grow in size
    - assembly of new organelles and other cell structures continues


  2. Asexual Reproduction- essentially genetic carbon copies of parent cells
    - identical to parent cells except for random mutations
    - different types: binary fission, budding, regeneration, parthenogenesis


  3. Acrosome- chromosomes condense
    - centriole pairs separate and move toward opposite poles of cell
    - spindle apparatus form
    - nuclear membrane dissolves
    - kinetochores, attached kinetochore fibers, appear at the chromosome centromere


  4. Metaphase I- homolgous pairs (tetrads) align at the equatorial plane
    - each pair attaches to a separate spindle fiber by its kinetochore


  5. Binary Fission- a simple form of asexual reproduction in prokaryotes
    - circular chromosome replicates
    - a new plasma membrane and cell wall grow inward along the midline of the cell, dividing it into two
    - each daughter cell contains a duplicate of the parent chromosome