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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. metabolism
  2. osmosis
  3. hypertonic solution
  4. energy coupling
  5. phosphorylation
  1. a The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
  2. b Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to lose water.
  3. c The transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule. Nearly all cellular work depends on ATP energizing other molecules by phosphorylation.
  4. d In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
  5. e The totality of an organism's chemical reactions.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to take up water.
  2. A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to the enzyme's active site in place of the substrate. A competitive inhibitor's structure mimics that of the enzyme's substrate.
  3. The study of energy transformation that occurs in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics; second law of thermodynamics.
  4. Main energy source for cells.
  5. The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring input of energy (often as ATP).

5 True/False questions

  1. noncompetitive inhibitorA substance that impedes the activity of an enzyme without entering an active site. By binding elsewhere on the enzyme, a noncompetitive inhibitor changes the shape of the enzyme so that the active site no longer functions.

          

  2. cellular respirationThe aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; the energy-releasing chemical breakdown of food molecules, such as glucose, and the storage of potential energy in a form that cells can use to perform work; involves glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis).

          

  3. phagocytosisCellular "drinking"; a type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membranous vesicles.

          

  4. energyThe capacity to perform work, or to rearrange matter.

          

  5. substrateA measure of disorder. One form of disorder is heat, which is random molecular motion.