5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- hypertonic solution
- energy coupling
- a The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
- b Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to lose water.
- c The transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule. Nearly all cellular work depends on ATP energizing other molecules by phosphorylation.
- d In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
- e The totality of an organism's chemical reactions.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to take up water.
- A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to the enzyme's active site in place of the substrate. A competitive inhibitor's structure mimics that of the enzyme's substrate.
- The study of energy transformation that occurs in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics; second law of thermodynamics.
- Main energy source for cells.
- The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring input of energy (often as ATP).
5 True/False questions
noncompetitive inhibitor → A substance that impedes the activity of an enzyme without entering an active site. By binding elsewhere on the enzyme, a noncompetitive inhibitor changes the shape of the enzyme so that the active site no longer functions.
cellular respiration → The aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; the energy-releasing chemical breakdown of food molecules, such as glucose, and the storage of potential energy in a form that cells can use to perform work; involves glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis).
phagocytosis → Cellular "drinking"; a type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membranous vesicles.
energy → The capacity to perform work, or to rearrange matter.
substrate → A measure of disorder. One form of disorder is heat, which is random molecular motion.