5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- hypertonic solution
- potential energy
- a The capacity to perform work, or to rearrange matter.
- b The energy that matter possesses because of its location or arrangement. Water behind a dam and chemical bonds possess potential energy.
- c The movement of materials out of the cytoplasm of a cell by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
- d Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to lose water.
- e The study of energy transformation that occurs in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics; second law of thermodynamics.
5 Multiple choice questions
- (1) A specific substance (reactant) on which an enzyme acts. Each enzyme recognizes only the specific substrate or substrates of the reaction it catalyzes. (2) A surface in or on which an organism lives.
- The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane, without any input of energy.
- Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to take up water.
- Cellular "eating"; a type of endocytosis whereby a cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm.
- The ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause that cell to gain or lose water.
5 True/False questions
second law of thermodynamics → The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
exergonic reaction → An energy-requiring chemical reaction, which yields products with more potential energy than the reactants. The amount of energy stored in the products equals the difference between the potential energy in the reactants and that in the products.
osmosis → The movement of materials out of the cytoplasm of a cell by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
concentration gradient → An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, substances tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
active site → The part of an enzyme molecule where a substrate molecule attaches (by means of weak chemical bonds); typically, a pocket or groove on the enzyme's surface.