5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- endergonic reaction
- a An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions.
- b An energy-requiring chemical reaction, which yields products with more potential energy than the reactants. The amount of energy stored in the products equals the difference between the potential energy in the reactants and that in the products.
- c A protein (or RNA molecule) that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed into a different molecule in the process.
- d Cellular "drinking"; a type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membranous vesicles.
- e A nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. See also coenzyme.
5 Multiple choice questions
- A transport protein in the plasma membrane of some plant or animal cells that facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane (osmosis).
- The energy that matter possesses because of its location or arrangement. Water behind a dam and chemical bonds possess potential energy.
- An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, substances tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
- Cellular uptake of molecules or particles via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane.
- Method by which organisms regulate solute concentrations and balance the gain and loss of water.
5 True/False questions
second law of thermodynamics → The principle whereby every energy conversion reduces the order of the universe, increasing its entropy. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat.
hypertonic solution → Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to lose water.
substrate → (1) A specific substance (reactant) on which an enzyme acts. Each enzyme recognizes only the specific substrate or substrates of the reaction it catalyzes. (2) A surface in or on which an organism lives.
feedback inhibition → A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to the enzyme's active site in place of the substrate. A competitive inhibitor's structure mimics that of the enzyme's substrate.
kinetic energy → The energy that matter possesses because of its location or arrangement. Water behind a dam and chemical bonds possess potential energy.