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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. exergonic reaction
  2. hypotonic solution
  3. energy coupling
  4. thermodynamics
  5. phosphorylation
  1. a An energy-releasing chemical reaction in which the reactants contain more potential energy than the products. The reaction releases an amount of energy equal to the difference in potential energy between the reactants and the products.
  2. b The transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule. Nearly all cellular work depends on ATP energizing other molecules by phosphorylation.
  3. c The study of energy transformation that occurs in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics; second law of thermodynamics.
  4. d In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
  5. e Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to take up water.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others and blocks the passage of other substances altogether.
  2. An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, substances tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
  3. (1) A specific substance (reactant) on which an enzyme acts. Each enzyme recognizes only the specific substrate or substrates of the reaction it catalyzes. (2) A surface in or on which an organism lives.
  4. An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions.
  5. The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated.

5 True/False questions

  1. chemical energyEnergy available in molecules for release in a chemical reaction; a form of potential energy.


  2. fluid mosaicA description of membrane structure, depicting a cellular membrane as a mosaic of diverse protein molecules embedded in a fluid bilayer made of phospholipid molecules.


  3. induced fitCellular uptake of molecules or particles via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane.


  4. heatThe capacity to perform work, or to rearrange matter.


  5. exocytosisCellular uptake of molecules or particles via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane.


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