History Tri 2 Exam Vocab
Terms in this set (49)
Single printed news sheets sold to the public
Books that preditct the weather and the prospects for growing crops, and also contain such things as calendars, maps, and mecical advice
Standard of Living
Measure of the quality of life
People began using experiments and mathematics to understand things. The study of nature became more organized and people no longer relied on just religious thought to explain world things
Theory according to Hellenistic thinker Ptolemy that Earth is the center of the universe.
Theory developed by Copernicus that the sun is the center of the universe.
English philosopher and scientist of the 1200s.
Carefully conducted experiments and mathematical calculations to verify the results of experiments.
Did not believe in Ptolemy's geocentric theory. Instead he believed that the sun was the center of the universe.
Italian scientist that helped confirm Copernicus understanding.
English scientist that published a book building on the work of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. His findings had a huge impact on science of his time.
Flemish scientist and studied anatomy.
Leader of the Scientific Revolution. His ideas led to great advances in mathematics, the sciences, and philosophy.
English philosopher and scientist. Believed that scientics theores could be developed only through observation.
German astronomer and mathematicain that used models and observation to test Copernicus theory
Paid pardons from punishment for sin.
Religious societies of a few people; usually with a preacher as their leader.
Belief that at the beginning of time God decided who would be saved.
Government ruled by religious leaders claiming God's authority.
Religious revolution that split the church in western Europe and created a number of new churches.
Critic of Tetzel and posted the 95 thesis. He also created Lutheranism he focused on inner faith in God. People could receive salvation only through the grace of God, not through their own actions.
Caused the break between England and the Roman Catholic church. The break was a political move
Founded a Protestant church that had a strong fallowing. He created the Institutes of the Christian Religion. Calvinists had very stict rules
French people, indcluding high ranked nobles, who converted to Calvinism
Belief that reason and scientific method could logically explain human nature.
Thinkers of the Enlightenment. Critics of society. They wrote to one another and published their ideas in books and plays
Government must be created by and controlled by the people.
System of government in which an absolute monarch would rule, but according to the principles of the Englightenment.
Movement during the 1700's that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society
A handbook describing the ideas of the Enlightenment, became the most famous publication of the period.
Editor of the Encyclopedia. Helped to publish the first edition in 28 volumes.
Baron de Montesquieu
Philosopher tjat adopted the ideas of John Locke. He published The Spirit Of the Laws. Tried to describe the perfect government. Believed that the British system had the best.
Published The Social Contract. He wrote that people are naturally good, but the environment, education, and laws corrupt them.
Early spokesperson for women's rights. She argued that Englightenment ideals of equality should be extended to women as well as men.
Attempt to return the church to an emphasis on spiritual matters. Also allowed the church to make its doctrines more clear. Campaign to stop the spread of Protestantism
Council of Trent
A group of church leaders that met and acted to end the abuses that surrounded the sae of indulgences and to tighten discipline.
Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius de Loyola in 1534
Ignatius de Loyola
Founded the Jesuits in 1534. Believed that sakvation could be achieved, in part, by doing good deeds.
Protected individuals against unfair arrest and imprisonment
English monarchy was restored
Political party that suppored the monarchy in England in the 1600's
Political party that rebled against the monarchy, wanted a strong parlament and opposed to having a catholic ruler
Charles II brother. Came to the throne in 1685. Believed in absolute royal rule
Famous soldier who defeated the French. Parliament gave the crown of England to him.
Became ruler with William III as joint rulers
Bloodless transfer of power to William and Mary of England in 1688
English philosopher who believed that people acted from self-intrest. "only the strong would survive."
English philosopher who disagreed with Hobbes. He believed that individual rights were superior to laws and governments.
English Bill of Rights
Parliament created this document. It chose who would rule the country