study of patterns and processes by which an individual survives and reproduces in the environment
Two ways substances can be transported (internally)
active transport and by following concentration gradients
these two types of transport help maintain the internal environment and metabolism by adjusting the kinds, amounts, and directional movement of substances
active and passive
cells or cell parts that detect stimuli (forms of energy). They then send signals to the brain.
Negative feedback mechanism
homeostatic control mechanism that reduces the output of the stimulus. fixes changes in the internal environment
whats and example of a receptor triggering changes?
slowing down of the entire body and its cells to counteract overheating
positive feedback mechanisms
initiate a chain of events that intensify change from an original condition and after a limited time, the intesification reverses the change. Usually associated with instability in a system
structural unit of at least two tissues, organized in certain proportions and patterns, that carries out one or more common tasks
series of stages in which specialized tissues, organs, and organ systems form. measured qualitatively
made up of extracellular fluid. Changes in its composition and volume affect cell activities
Tissues that cover the internal and external surfaces of the body, the cells of which are held together with specialized structures such as tight junctions. Arise from the ectoderm
sheetlike tissue of cells that are close together, with little extracellular material between them. Absorb or secrete
when a functionally specialized substance (especially one that is not a waste) is released from a gland or cell
have ducts or tubes that open onto the free epithelial surface. secrete many substances, such as oils, mucus, saliva, tears, milk, digestive enzymes, and earwax
have no ducts. they secrete their products, hormones, directly into interstitial fluid
adjoining cells are welded together with a mass of proteins, which is anchored under the plasma membrane by tufts of intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton
strands of proteins running parallel with the free surface of the tissue. they block leaking between adjoining cells. Stop most substances from leaking across a tissue
cylindrical arrays of proteins span the plasma membrane of adjoining cells. they pair up as open channels for signals between cells. Permit ions and small molecules to pass freely from the cytoplasm of one cell to another.
Which of the following is the correct order of levels of structural organization?
cell, tissue, organ, organism
The structural and physiological characteristics of all plants and animals are specifically adapted to their _____.
In a typical feedback loop, an integrator involves the _____ system and an effector involves the _____ system.
Panting, sweating, and dilation of surface blood vessels in response to overheating are examples of _____.
Positive and negative feedback help maintain the internal environment in a state of _____.
In plants, the physical isolation of an injured or infected site is called _____.
In cellular communication, a receptor site is activated by _____.
binding to a specific signal molecule
Cellular communication involves sending signals, receiving signals, and _____
inducing change in a target cell's activity
A community of cells that interacts together to perform a specific task is called a/an _____.
Which of the following plant structures would be most comparable to the human vascular system?
xylem and phloem
vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
In a feedback loop, which of the following is the correct pathway from stimulus to response?
receptor, integrator, effector
The process of homeostasis that tends to cancel or counteract the effects of the original stimulus is called _____.
negative feedback mechanism
The protective mechanism in which plants release signal molecules that diffuse to undamaged tissues is called _____.
he leaves of the yellow bush lupine conserve water by _____.
trapping moisture lost from stomata in folded leaves
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
For cells to communicate, a _____ must reversibly bind to a _____.
signal molecule, receptor protein
Epithelium often overlies connective tissue; a(an) _____ forms the attachment between the two tissues.
Exocrine glands differ from endocrine glands in that they _____.
have ducts which carry products to a free epithelial surface
How do the products of endocrine glands reach the appropriate target cells?
products diffuse into the blood and are transported by the circulatory system
To better coordinate its activity, the heart is formed from cells that are connected to one another with _____ junctions.
Using anatomical terminology, it would be correct to say that the elbow is _____ to the shoulder.
A beauty-salon permanent begins by applying a chemical to the hair that _____.
breaks the disulfide bonds between adjacent keratin chains
Which answer correctly matches a muscle characteristic with the appropriate muscle type?
branched cells, cardiac muscle
ndividuals with a relatively thick layer of _____ tissue may experience less discomfort as the temperature falls.
Which of the following forms a thick protective barrier that can keep bacteria from entering the body?
stratified squamous epithelium
Which of the following tissue types can currently be grown in the lab to replace damaged tissue in humans?
Mucus, saliva, earwax, milk, and digestive enzymes are considered exocrine products because _____.
each is produced within an exocrine gland and transported by a duct to a free surface
organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter
Have connecting roles in the body. Structurally or functoinally support, bind, seperate, and in one case, insulate other tissues
Loose connective tissue
fibroblasts and fiber are dispersed widely throughout the matrix. Most common in the vertebrae body. Help organs and epithelia stay in place
Fibrous, Irregular Connective Tissue
Matrix is packed with many fibroblasts and collagen fibers that are positioned every which way. Is a component of skin that supports intestinal muscles and also forms protective capsules around organs that do not stretch much
Fibrous, Regular Connective Tissue
Has orderly rows of fibroblasts between parallel, tightly packed, bundles of fibers. Helps keep tissue from being torn apart whrn placed under mechanical stress. Tendons and ligaments are examples
In ligaments, what thing, found in the tissue matrix, facilitates movements around joints?
a connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that protects the ends of bones and keeps them from rubbing together
hardened connective tissue that is the main tissue of bones. Some bones are sites of blood cell formation
Energy reservoir where excess carbohydrates and lipids are converted to fats. The fats then form an insulating layer and cushion certain body parts and organs such as kidneys and hearts
considered a connective tissue because its cellular components arise from stem cells in bone, a connective tissue
what does plasma consist of?
proteins, gases, ions, sugars, and other substances that are dissolved in it
Consist of many cells arranged parallel to one another, in tight or loose arrays. Coordinated contractions of layers or rings of muscles move the whole body or its component parts
skeletal muscle tissue
functional partner of bone and cartilage. Helps move and maintain the positions of the body and its parts. Consists of groups of cells fused together
cardiac muscle tissue
occurs only in the heart wall. Contains sarcomeres. Consists of single, branching cells that have a nucleus. At their ends, adhering junctions help keep them from being ripped apart during forceful contractions.
the basic contractile unit of striated muscle; the segment of a myofibril between two adjacent z-lines.
smooth muscle tissue
has single, unbranching cells, tapered at both ends. Contracts slower, but longer than skeletal muscle. Found in the stomach, bladder, and uterus
composed of neurons and a variety of cells, collectively called neuroglia, that structurally and functionally support them
receive and integrate sensory information. sore the bits that hold meaning and coordinate the body's short term and long term responses to stimuli
The middle layer of primary tissue. Start of muscles, bones, and most of the circulatory, urinary, and reproductive systems
Inner primary tissue layer. Start of the lining of the digestive tract and organs derived from it
Protects the body from injury, dehydration, and some pathogens. Controls temperature and excretes wastes
Detects external and internal stimuli. Controls and coordinates the responses to stimuli; integrates all organ system activities
Collects and returns some tissue fluid to the bloodstream; defends the body against infection and tissue damage
Supports and protects body parts; provides muscle attachment sites; produces red blood cells; stores calcium and phosphorous
Rapidly delivers oxygen to the tissue fluid that bathes all living cells; removes carbon dioxide wastes of celss
Rapidly transports many materials to and from cells; helps stabilize internal pH and temperature
Hormonally controls body functioning, works with the nervous system to integrate short-term and long term activities
Ingests food and water; mechanically and chemically breaks down food and absorbs small molecules into the internal environment; eliminates food residues
Maintains the volume and composition of the internal environment; excretes excess fluid and blood-borne wastes
Females produce eggs and males produce sperm that fertilize the egg. Hormones of this system also influence other organ systems
Contains the urinary bladder, the reproductive organs, and the last part of the large intestine.
the cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart
flexible rodlike structure of mesodermal cells that is the principal logitudinal structural element of chordates and of early empryo vertebrates. Plays an organizational role in nervous systm development
bones that enclose and protect the spinal cord, support the skull and upper extremitites, and are attachment sites for muscle
bone forming cells. present on the outer surface and internal cavities of the bones of adults
Osteoblasts that have became imprisoned in small chambers after secreting matrix material around themelves. Most common cells in bony adult tissue
bone cells that break down bone tissue by secreting acids and enzymes into the hardenedmatrix
mostly fa substance that fills most mature bones of adults. Can be converted to red marrow in times of need
a sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages or supporting muscles or organs
moor protein that starts at the center of the sarcomere. forms a cross bridge to actin when the local concentration of calcium ions rises and a bindig site for the myosin's head is exposed
The theory explaining how muscle contracts, based on change within a sarcomere, the basic unit of muscle organization, stating that thin (actin) filaments slide across thick (myosin) filaments, shortening the sarcomere; the shortening of all sarcomeres in a myofibril shortens the entire myofibril
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction