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176 terms

Chapter 28/33/37 Animal and Plant Anatomy

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physiology
study of patterns and processes by which an individual survives and reproduces in the environment
cells need these two elements/molecules to survive
carbon dioxide and oxygen
A method that animal and plant cells use to achieve homeostasis
diffusion
surface-to-volume ratio
volume increases in three dimensions. area increases in two directions
is diffusion easier in thin or thick areas?
thin
where do big animals gather substances for internal use?
the outside environment
Two ways substances can be transported (internally)
active transport and by following concentration gradients
these two types of transport help maintain the internal environment and metabolism by adjusting the kinds, amounts, and directional movement of substances
active and passive
habitat
place where individuals of a species normally live
what makes up a habitat?
soil, air, animals, water, and plants in the area
interstitial fluid
fills the places between cells and tissues
plamsa
fluid portion of blood
what does interstitial fluid exchange substances with?
cells and blood
sensory receptors
cells or cell parts that detect stimuli (forms of energy). They then send signals to the brain.
Negative feedback mechanism
homeostatic control mechanism that reduces the output of the stimulus. fixes changes in the internal environment
integrator
central command post that receives and processes information about stimuli
effectors
carry out suitable responses to the stimulation
whats and example of a receptor triggering changes?
slowing down of the entire body and its cells to counteract overheating
positive feedback mechanisms
initiate a chain of events that intensify change from an original condition and after a limited time, the intesification reverses the change. Usually associated with instability in a system
Organ systems of nearly all animal are controlled by what?
neural and endocrine control
tissue
community of cells and intercellular substances that are interacting in one or more tasks
organ
structural unit of at least two tissues, organized in certain proportions and patterns, that carries out one or more common tasks
organ system
A group of two or more organs that interact to perform a set of related tasks
growth
increase in the number, size, and volume of cells. Measured quantitatively
development
series of stages in which specialized tissues, organs, and organ systems form. measured qualitatively
internal environment
made up of extracellular fluid. Changes in its composition and volume affect cell activities
what do all animals and plants require for all of their living cells?
a stable fluid environment
most common type of feedback mechanism
negative
ectoderm
first layer of cells to form in the embryo of nearly all animals
epithelia
Tissues that cover the internal and external surfaces of the body, the cells of which are held together with specialized structures such as tight junctions. Arise from the ectoderm
epithelium
sheetlike tissue of cells that are close together, with little extracellular material between them. Absorb or secrete
stratified epithelium
epithelium that has cells that form two or more layers
where do gland cells occur?
in epithelia
what maintains solute-water balance in humans?
kidneys
excretion
concentration and removal of substances that are of no use to the body
secretion
when a functionally specialized substance (especially one that is not a waste) is released from a gland or cell
glands
saclike, secretory organs that open to the free epithelial
exocrine glands
have ducts or tubes that open onto the free epithelial surface. secrete many substances, such as oils, mucus, saliva, tears, milk, digestive enzymes, and earwax
endocrine glands
have no ducts. they secrete their products, hormones, directly into interstitial fluid
adhering junction
adjoining cells are welded together with a mass of proteins, which is anchored under the plasma membrane by tufts of intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton
tight junction
strands of proteins running parallel with the free surface of the tissue. they block leaking between adjoining cells. Stop most substances from leaking across a tissue
gap junction
cylindrical arrays of proteins span the plasma membrane of adjoining cells. they pair up as open channels for signals between cells. Permit ions and small molecules to pass freely from the cytoplasm of one cell to another.
Which of the following is the correct order of levels of structural organization?
cell, tissue, organ, organism
A series of stages in the formation of specialized tissues and organs is called _____.
development
Which of the following plant structures functions most like the human reproductive system?
flower
The structural and physiological characteristics of all plants and animals are specifically adapted to their _____.
habitat
The internal environment consists specifically of fluids in _____.
interstitial fluid and plasma
In a typical feedback loop, an integrator involves the _____ system and an effector involves the _____ system.
nervous, glandular
Panting, sweating, and dilation of surface blood vessels in response to overheating are examples of _____.
negative feedback
Positive and negative feedback help maintain the internal environment in a state of _____.
homeostasis
In plants, the physical isolation of an injured or infected site is called _____.
compartmentalization
In cellular communication, a receptor site is activated by _____.
binding to a specific signal molecule
Cellular communication involves sending signals, receiving signals, and _____
inducing change in a target cell's activity
A community of cells that interacts together to perform a specific task is called a/an _____.
tissue
Which of the following plant structures would be most comparable to the human vascular system?
xylem and phloem
phloem
vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
Which mechanism allows a substance to move against its concentration gradient?
active transport
Surface-to-volume ratio is most critical to which metabolic process?
rapid gas exchange
Interstitial fluid is found _____.
between cells
In a feedback loop, which of the following is the correct pathway from stimulus to response?
receptor, integrator, effector
The process of homeostasis that tends to cancel or counteract the effects of the original stimulus is called _____.
negative feedback mechanism
The protective mechanism in which plants release signal molecules that diffuse to undamaged tissues is called _____.
system-acquired resistance
he leaves of the yellow bush lupine conserve water by _____.
trapping moisture lost from stomata in folded leaves
stomata
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
For cells to communicate, a _____ must reversibly bind to a _____.
signal molecule, receptor protein
Programmed cell death is controlled by _____.
genes
Epithelium often overlies connective tissue; a(an) _____ forms the attachment between the two tissues.
basement membrane
Exocrine glands differ from endocrine glands in that they _____.
have ducts which carry products to a free epithelial surface
How do the products of endocrine glands reach the appropriate target cells?
products diffuse into the blood and are transported by the circulatory system
To better coordinate its activity, the heart is formed from cells that are connected to one another with _____ junctions.
gap
Using anatomical terminology, it would be correct to say that the elbow is _____ to the shoulder.
distal
A beauty-salon permanent begins by applying a chemical to the hair that _____.
breaks the disulfide bonds between adjacent keratin chains
In which tissues could abundant collagen and elastin be found?
connective tissues
Which answer correctly matches a muscle characteristic with the appropriate muscle type?
branched cells, cardiac muscle
Which nerve cells relay commands from the brain or spinal cord to muscle cells?
motor neurons
Hair is primarily composed of _____.
keratin fibers
A penetrating injury to the lungs would require entry into the _____ cavity.
thoracic
ndividuals with a relatively thick layer of _____ tissue may experience less discomfort as the temperature falls.
adipose
The activity of _____ results in a tan after adequate exposure to the sun.
melanocytes
Which of the following forms a thick protective barrier that can keep bacteria from entering the body?
stratified squamous epithelium
Tendons connect bone to _____, while ligaments connect bone to _____.
muscle, bone
cartilage
cushions and protects the joints between bones
Which muscle type is classified as voluntary?
skeletal
sensory neurons
detect specific stimuli, such as light, heat, and pressure
An epithelium made up primarily of flattened cells is called _____.
squamous
Which of the following tissue types can currently be grown in the lab to replace damaged tissue in humans?
epidermis
Mucus, saliva, earwax, milk, and digestive enzymes are considered exocrine products because _____.
each is produced within an exocrine gland and transported by a duct to a free surface
Vas deferens
a duct that carries spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
Urogenital sinus
point where the vagina joins with the urethra
Hard palate
the bony part of the roof of the mouth
Duodenum
the part of the small intestine between the stomach and the jejunum
Pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
Lymph nodes
filters or traps for foreign particles and contain white blood cells
Atria
the two upper chambers of the heart- the receiving areas that pool incoming blood.
Kidney
organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter
Medial
relating to or situated in or extending toward the middle
Lateral
toward the outside of the body
Proximal
close to a point of reference
Distal
farther from a point of reference
connective tissue
Have connecting roles in the body. Structurally or functoinally support, bind, seperate, and in one case, insulate other tissues
What is the main type of cell in every tissue in the body except connective tissue?
fibroblasts
Fibroblasts
Make and secrete structural fiber of collagen and elastin
Loose connective tissue
fibroblasts and fiber are dispersed widely throughout the matrix. Most common in the vertebrae body. Help organs and epithelia stay in place
Fibrous, Irregular Connective Tissue
Matrix is packed with many fibroblasts and collagen fibers that are positioned every which way. Is a component of skin that supports intestinal muscles and also forms protective capsules around organs that do not stretch much
Fibrous, Regular Connective Tissue
Has orderly rows of fibroblasts between parallel, tightly packed, bundles of fibers. Helps keep tissue from being torn apart whrn placed under mechanical stress. Tendons and ligaments are examples
In ligaments, what thing, found in the tissue matrix, facilitates movements around joints?
elastic fibers
cartilage
a connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that protects the ends of bones and keeps them from rubbing together
bone tissue
hardened connective tissue that is the main tissue of bones. Some bones are sites of blood cell formation
Adipose Tissue
Energy reservoir where excess carbohydrates and lipids are converted to fats. The fats then form an insulating layer and cushion certain body parts and organs such as kidneys and hearts
blood
considered a connective tissue because its cellular components arise from stem cells in bone, a connective tissue
where are blood cells suspended?
plasma
what does plasma consist of?
proteins, gases, ions, sugars, and other substances that are dissolved in it
red blood cells
get oxygen to metabolically active tissues and get rid of carbon dioxide wastes
white blood cells
patrol, defend, and repair tissues
platelets
Function in blood clotting
How many types of tissue do vertebrates have?
Three
Muscle Tissues
Consist of many cells arranged parallel to one another, in tight or loose arrays. Coordinated contractions of layers or rings of muscles move the whole body or its component parts
skeletal muscle tissue
functional partner of bone and cartilage. Helps move and maintain the positions of the body and its parts. Consists of groups of cells fused together
cardiac muscle tissue
occurs only in the heart wall. Contains sarcomeres. Consists of single, branching cells that have a nucleus. At their ends, adhering junctions help keep them from being ripped apart during forceful contractions.
Sarcomere
the basic contractile unit of striated muscle; the segment of a myofibril between two adjacent z-lines.
smooth muscle tissue
has single, unbranching cells, tapered at both ends. Contracts slower, but longer than skeletal muscle. Found in the stomach, bladder, and uterus
nervous tissue
composed of neurons and a variety of cells, collectively called neuroglia, that structurally and functionally support them
Neurons
Excitable cells that make up the communication line in most nervous systems
Neurotransmitters
Signaling molecules that diffuse to another cell
what do sensory neurons detect?
specific stimuli (light, pressure, etc.)
interneurons
receive and integrate sensory information. sore the bits that hold meaning and coordinate the body's short term and long term responses to stimuli
motor neurons
relay commands from the brain and spinal cord to muscle cells, and to glands
Ectoderm
The outer layer of primary tissue. Gives rise to epidermis and the nervous system
Mesoderm
The middle layer of primary tissue. Start of muscles, bones, and most of the circulatory, urinary, and reproductive systems
Endoderm
Inner primary tissue layer. Start of the lining of the digestive tract and organs derived from it
Integumentary system
Protects the body from injury, dehydration, and some pathogens. Controls temperature and excretes wastes
Nervous system
Detects external and internal stimuli. Controls and coordinates the responses to stimuli; integrates all organ system activities
Muscular System
Moves the body and its internal parts; maintains posture and generates heat
Lymphatic System
Collects and returns some tissue fluid to the bloodstream; defends the body against infection and tissue damage
Skeletal System
Supports and protects body parts; provides muscle attachment sites; produces red blood cells; stores calcium and phosphorous
Respiratory System
Rapidly delivers oxygen to the tissue fluid that bathes all living cells; removes carbon dioxide wastes of celss
Circulatory System
Rapidly transports many materials to and from cells; helps stabilize internal pH and temperature
Endocrine System
Hormonally controls body functioning, works with the nervous system to integrate short-term and long term activities
Digestive System
Ingests food and water; mechanically and chemically breaks down food and absorbs small molecules into the internal environment; eliminates food residues
Urinary System
Maintains the volume and composition of the internal environment; excretes excess fluid and blood-borne wastes
Reproductive System
Females produce eggs and males produce sperm that fertilize the egg. Hormones of this system also influence other organ systems
posterior
at or near the back of the body
anterior
of or near the head end or toward the front plane of the body
frontal plane
divides the body into anterior and posterior
transverse plane
splits the top and bottom of a body
dorsal surface
Along (or toward) the vertebral surface of the body
ventral surface
surface near or on the belly
pelvic cavity
Contains the urinary bladder, the reproductive organs, and the last part of the large intestine.
cranial cavity
in the skull, encases the brain
spinal cavity
space inside the spinal column containing the spinal cord
thoracic cavity
the cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart
notochord
flexible rodlike structure of mesodermal cells that is the principal logitudinal structural element of chordates and of early empryo vertebrates. Plays an organizational role in nervous systm development
intervertebral disks
seperate backbones from one another
herniated disk
dislocated intervertebral disk
pectoral girdle
set of bones which connects the upper limb to the axial skeleton on each side
Carpals
wrist bones
vertebrae
bones that enclose and protect the spinal cord, support the skull and upper extremitites, and are attachment sites for muscle
how many vertebrae do humans have?
26
phalanges
toe bones
osteoblasts
bone forming cells. present on the outer surface and internal cavities of the bones of adults
osteocytes
Osteoblasts that have became imprisoned in small chambers after secreting matrix material around themelves. Most common cells in bony adult tissue
osteoclasts
bone cells that break down bone tissue by secreting acids and enzymes into the hardenedmatrix
red marrow
major site of blood cell formation that fills the spaces in spongy bone
yellow marrow
mostly fa substance that fills most mature bones of adults. Can be converted to red marrow in times of need
what is the first skeleton to form in vertebrae embryos made of?
cartilage
joints
areas of contact or near-contact in between bones
ligament
a sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages or supporting muscles or organs
cerebrellum
tells the muscle cells how much energy is needed to perform an action
myofibrils
bundle of contractile filaments that run from one end of a muscle fiber to the other
actin
makes up most of the thin filaments in myofibrils that connect sarcomeres
myosin
moor protein that starts at the center of the sarcomere. forms a cross bridge to actin when the local concentration of calcium ions rises and a bindig site for the myosin's head is exposed
sliding-filament model
The theory explaining how muscle contracts, based on change within a sarcomere, the basic unit of muscle organization, stating that thin (actin) filaments slide across thick (myosin) filaments, shortening the sarcomere; the shortening of all sarcomeres in a myofibril shortens the entire myofibril
acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
action potential
reversal of the voltage in muscle fibers, neurons, and some excitable cells
sarcoplasmic reticulum
organelle of the muscle fiber that stores calcium
troponin
complex of three regulatory proteins that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal and cardiac muscle