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BJU World History Ch6 The Byzantine and Islamic Empires
Terms in this set (57)
A blending of the cultural heritage of ancient Greece and the cultures of the Near East. Strongly influenced the people of Russia and southeastern Europe.
Emperor Constantine formally dedicated this new capital for the Roman Empire in 330. It became more widely known as Constantinople though. "Queen of the Mediterranean."
He rose from humble origins to become one of the most famous Byzantine emperors.
The wife of Justinian who had a strong character and gave timely counsel.
A popular uprising in 532 that threatened to topple Justinian from power. Name comes from the battle cry of the people meaning "conquer!"
A systematic arrangement of laws that clarified Roman legal principles.
The church which name means "Holy Wisdom." The most famous of fine Byzantine architecture is this structure.
The pope sent a delegation to Constantinople in this year to stating that he was assuming authority over the churches in southern Italy.
Depriving an individual of the sacraments and excluding him from the fellowship of the church.
Eastern Orthodox Church
Made up of various national churches. Do not recognize one man as their leader. Each patriarch exercises authority over his own national church and is in equal position to every other patriarch.
Known as the "Bulgar Slayer." He crushed the Bulgars in the Balkan region and added their kingdoms to the empire.
Emerged as a powerful force in the East. Originally nomadic tribes from central Asia, they adopted Arab culture and the Islamic religion.
Battle of Manzikert
The Byzantine army fell to the Seljuk Turks in 1071 here. Since that day, Asia Minor has remained under the control of the Turks.
The West sent several military expeditions to free the East, especially the Holy Land, from these Muslim invaders.
The Byzantine Empire finally came to an end in this year when a new wave of Muslim sacked Constantinople and killed the last emperor.
Muslim invaders who sacked Constantinople and killed the last Byzantine emperor.
Cyril and Methodius
These brothers had gone to the Slavic peoples of Russia and southeastern Europe. They developed a written language for the Slavic tribes.
People whose ancestors played a major role in establishing the early Russian state.
These bands of Swedish Norsemen sailed south from the Baltic Sea using the waterways. They plundered Slavic villages along the rivers.
This Varagian warrior gained control of Novgorod about 862 whether by invitation or by force. He established the first ruling dynasty of of Russia.
The traditional date for the beginning of Russian history.
He ordered the destruction of pagan idols and temples and established Orthodox Christianity as the official state religion.
"The Wise." He greatly strengthened the city's position of leadership; Kiev became known as the "Mother of Russian Cities." His reign saw the greatest territorial expansion of the early Russian state. He negotiated marriage alliances and sponsored the earliest Russian code of laws.
Fierce Mongolian warriors from central Asia. They swept into Russian and and destroyed Kiev in 1240.
Although he was not the child of God's special promise, God blessed him. His descendants lived in the Arabian Peninsula and became numerous.
These nomads roamed the desert in search of pastureland and water for their herds of goats, sheep, and camels.
He claimed to be the last and greatest of prophets. His teachings became the basis for Islam. Name means "highly praised."
God of Islam.
Means "submission [to the will of God.]" A new religion formed by Muhammad.
Followers of Islam. Means "submitters to God."
A sacred shrine that housed hundreds of pagan idols at Mecca.
Muhammad made the fateful decision to flee Mecca and move to Medina in this year.
The move of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina. Celebrated as year 1 in the Muslim calendar. Means "Flight."
The sacred book and primary authority of the Muslims. Means "recitation." Chapters are called suras.
Five Pillars of Islam
Shahadah: There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.
Salat: Prayers must be recited five times a day while facing Mecca.
Zakat: "Purification." Alms must be given to the poor.
Sawm: A required fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan.
Hajj: The pilgrimage to Mecca. Required once of every able Muslim.
"Successors" who directed the affairs of Islam, exercising spiritual, political, and military authority. Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali.
The first caliph. Father of one of Muhammad's wives and early convert of Muhammad.
Holy War of the Muslims. Conquest of the Arabs.
Created a hereditary dynasty, ending the practice of selecting the caliph from among the close friends and relatives of Muhammad.
Battle of Tours
Umayyads pressed on into southern France until they were stopped by the Franks here in 732.
Under these, Arab supremacy within the Muslim empire gradually declined. They appointed many non Arabs to high government positions. Marks the peak of the Muslim empire.
Best remembered for his work with smallpox. Muslim physician who wrote many medical books in which they recorded their practical experience in identifying and treating various diseases.
Best remembered for his work with tuberculosis. Muslim physician who wrote many medical books in which they recorded their practical experience in identifying and treating various diseases.
Perhaps the most renowned Muslim poet and famed mathematician.
The art of visually beautiful writing.
Places of Muslim worship. The best examples of Muslim architecture.
A tall tower that is part of the mosque or adjacent to it.
"Crier" who calls the faithful to prayer five times a day from the minaret.
Arabian city Muhammad fled to from Mecca during his early journey to gain converts.
Early city of influence in Russia.
Muhammad, Abraham, Moses, Jesus
All were considered prophets in the eyes of the Muslims.
What angel did Muhammad claim to receive visions from leading to his belief that he was a "messenger from God"
Muslims were united in conquest under the idea that each conquest was a jihad
Why were Muslims so successful in their conquest of foreign lands?
Desert, dry, many nomads, merchants and some small farmers.
Describe early life on the Arabian Peninsula.
Lombards, Slavs and Bulgars, Persians, Seljik Turks, Ottoman Turks, and Arab Muslims.
Who tried to invade the Byzantine Empire?
Roman Catholic Church
What is the name of the Western Church during the Byzantine Empire?
Eastern Orthodox Church
What is the name of the Eastern Church during the Byzantine Empire?
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