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39 terms

language terms

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adjective
a word whose function is to desscribe a noun eg the school is old
Adjective
A word whose function is to describe a noun, e.g. the school is old.
Adverb
A word whose function is to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. E.g. He was very careful.
Alliteration
Repetition of a consonant sound, used especially in verse. E.g. After life's fitful fever.
Allusion
An indirect reference in speech or writing to a person, character, legend, or text. e.g. Maybe Noah will arrive in the next flood.
Assonance
The repetition of vowel sounds for a particular effect. E.g. clean, dream; cockled, cobbles.
Cliché
A stereotyped phrase that has become 'worn out' through excessive use. e.g. In this day and age.
Contraction
Two words shortened into one. e.g. he is becomes he's.
Colloquialism
A word or phrase we might ise in everyday conversation. E.g. Gidday
Connotations
Word associations on a personal and emotive level that contribute to word meaning. E.g. 'slim' has positive connotations; 'Skinny' has unfavourable connotations
Direct Speech
The words of a speaker presented as they are actually spoken. E.g. 'I am going to town,' said Tom
Euphemism
A figure of speech in which a harsh, unpleasant, or embarrassing fact is given a milder or more gentle expression. E.g. 'passed away' instead of dies.
Figurative language
The non-literal or imaginative metaphoric meaning of a word or words. e.g. she FLEW down the street.
Generalisation
A statement in which ALL is implied but only SOME is true. E.g. Students are lazy.
Hyperbole
An overstatement or exaggeration. E.g. I know millions of Year 12 students.
Imperative
The command form of a verb. E.g. Shut the door.
Innuendo
An indirect or subtle reference, sometimes malicious or disapproving. E.g. 'I think you need the next size up now' implying someone has put on weight.
Irony
A sort of sarcasm whereby meaning is transmitted by using the opposite. E.g. talking about your enemies as 'my dearest friends'.
Jargon
A collective term for words, expressions, or technical terms, intelligible to members of a specific group, but not the general public. E.g. computer jargon includes 'byte', 'programming', 'disc'.
Minor sentence
A meaningful sentence which does not contain a finite verb. It may also lack a subject. Minor sentences occur in everyday conversation. E.g. 'Tired?'
Metaphor
Saying that one thing IS something else, in order to compare them. e.g. 'she had fists of steel'.
Noun
A word used as the name of a person, and object, or a quality.
Abstract noun
Things which cannot be seen or touched, e.g. pity.
Concrete nouns
Things that have a concrete existence, e.g. car
Proper nouns
Names of people and places, e.g. Dunedin, Rachel
Collective nouns
Names for groups, e.g. a choir of singers.
Onomatopoeia
A word which suggests its meaning by the sound it makes, e.g. splash, pop.
Personification
A type of metaphor where living characteristics are given to an inanimate object, e.g. 'The morning dressed in scarlet robes.'
Pitch
The variation in the use of tone in the voice
Pun
A play on words which emphasises ambiguity or humour, e.g. What is black and white and read (red) all over? A newspaper.
Reported/Indirect Speech
Is reporting what another person has said, e.g. He says that he is going to enter the race.
Rhyme
The use of identical sounds at the end of words placed at definite intervals, as in lines of poetry.
Exact/Full rhyme
Where the vowel and final consonant are the same, e.g. song/long.
Internal rhyme
Occurs within the line, e.g. 'light falls on the castle walls'.
Half rhyme
Where the framework of the consonant stays the same, but the vowel changes, e.g. hall/hell.
Slant/eye rhyme
Words which look alike but are pronounced differently, e.g. love/move.
Rhythm
The arrangement of words into a sequence of stressed and unstressed syllables, or short and long syllables.
Simile
A comparison where two things or actions are likened to one another using the word 'like', 'as', or 'than' e.g. as wise as an owl.
Slang
A form of jargon used among people belonging to a social group, e.g. teenage slang, army slang.