Blood

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Blood volume for women?
4-5 L
blood volume of men
5-6 L
Oxygenated blood
Oxygen rich blood
leaves the heart—arteries—arterioles—capillaries
Deoxygenated blood
Oxygen-deficient blood
leaves the capillaries—venules—veins—heart
major components of whole blood
Liquid plasma
Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBCs)
Leukocytes, or white blood cells (WBCs)
Thrombocytes, or platelets4
Temp?
38°C (98.6 °F)
pH of blood?
7.35-7.45
Substance distribution
Blood transports:
O2 from the lungs & CO2 from the tissues
Nutrients from the digestive tract, building blocks
Metabolic wastes from cells to the lungs and kidneys for elimination
Hormones from endocrine glands to target organs
Regulation
Blood maintains:
Appropriate body temperature by absorbing and distributing heat
Normal pH in body tissues using buffer systems
Adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system
Protection
Prevents blood loss by:
Activating plasma proteins and platelets
Initiating clot formation when a vessel is broken

Prevents infection by:
Synthesizing and utilizing antibodies
Activating complement proteins - enhance inflammatory & immune responses & may lead to cell lysis
Activating WBCs to defend the body against foreign invaders
Plasma proteins
Albumins
Globulins
Fibrinogen
Albumins
60%
regulates osmotic pressure
transports hormones
Globulins
36%
transports lipids, vitamins cholesterol & antibodies
Fibrinogen
4%
blood clotting protein
Erythrocytesred blood cells (RBCs)
Leukocytes, white blood cells (WBCs)
Platelets
Formed elements in plasma?
RBC
Biconcave discs
No nuclei
No organelles
Very flexible - twist or turn even change shape to fit through tighter capillaries
Carries oxygen
Main function of RBCs?
Oxygen carrying capacity
How well our blood can carry oxygen
Hypoxia
Too few RBCs
Blood viscosity
Too many RBCs
Hemoglobin
A protein that fills the RBC & contributes to the oxygen carrying capacity
Oxyhemoglobin
Hb bound to oxygen
Oxygenated blood
Deoxyhemoglobin
Hb after oxygen diffuses into tissues - temporary state
Carbaminohemoglobin
Hb bound to carbon dioxide
Deoxygenated blood
Hematopoiesis
Blood cell formation
Occurs in the red bone marrow of the:
Axial skeleton and girdles
Proximal epiphyses of the humerus and femur
Hemocytoblast
blood stem cell that can become any blood cell
Erythropoiesis
the production of red blood cells
Erythropoietin
A hormone secreted by the kidneys that increases the rate of production of red blood cells in response to falling levels of oxygen in the tissues
Goes to red marrow to stimulate erythropoiesis
Negative feedback mechanism to produce RBCs
Oxygen level increases, EPO is inhibited
Oxygen level decreases, EPO is stimulated
Hemoglobin
heme + globin
Heme
iron + bilirubin
Iron
recycled & sent to bone marrow to be used in new RBCs
Bilirubin
secreted into small intestine in bile as waste
Globin
broken down into amino acids also to be reused
Anemia
blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity
Anemia Caused by Insufficient Erythrocytes
Hemorrhagic anemia
Hemolytic anemia
.Aplastic anemia
Anemia Caused by Decreased Hemoglobin Content
Iron-deficiency anemia
Pernicious anemia
Anemia Caused by Genetically Abnormal Hemoglobin
Thalassemia - Mediterranean ancestry
Sickle-cell anemia - African ancestry
Hemorrhagic anemia
result of acute or chronic loss of blood
Severe - stab wound
Chronic - hemorrhoids or bleeding ulcer
Hemolytic anemia
prematurely ruptured RBCs
Transfusion of wrong blood, bacterial infection
.Aplastic anemia
destruction or inhibition of red bone marrow
Toxins, drugs, radiation
Iron-deficiency anemia
Inadequate intake of iron-containing foods
Impaired iron absorption
Pernicious anemia
Deficiency of vitamin B12
Lack of intrinsic factor needed for absorption of B12 in stomach mucosa
Strict vegetarians (B12 in meat, poultry & fish)
Elderly (stomach mucosa atrophies)
Thalassemia - Mediterranean ancestry
absent or faulty globin chain in Hb
RBCs are thin, delicate, and deficient in Hb
Sickle-cell anemia - African ancestry
defective gene codes for an abnormal Hb called hemoglobin S (HbS)
This defect causes RBCs to become sickle-shaped in low oxygen situations
Can reduce life-span due to stress on the body
Polycethemias
Excess RBCs that increase blood viscosity
Polycythemia vera
Caused by bone marrow cancer
Secondary Polycythemia
Life at high altitudes b/c air is thinner
"Blood doping"
Athletes remove blood to trigger RBC production, then re-inject the removed RBCs
Leukocytosis
an infection that causes an increased WBC count over 11,000/µL
Differential white blood cell count
Can be done to determine which WBCs are elevated leading to a diagnosis
Neutrophils
Body's bacteria slayers - attracted to sites of inflammation
High #s during meningitis & appendicitis
3-6 lobed nuclei
50-70% WBC
2x size of RBC
3000 - 7000 cells/ mm3
Eosinophils
Counter attack against parasitic worms (tapeworms, flukes, pinworms & hookworms) too large to be phagocytized
Lessen the severity of allergies by phagocytizing immune complexes bilobed nuclei
1-4% of WBCs
100 - 400 cells/ mm3
Basophils
rarest WBCs
Granules filled with Histamine an inflammatory chemical that acts as a vasodilator and attracts other WBCs
Mast cells in connective tissue function very similarly to basophils
U- or S-shaped nuclei
0.5% WBC
20- 50 cells/ mm3
Lymphocytes
Two types
T cells function in the immune response act against virus infected cells & tumors
B cells give rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies
spherical nuclei
25% WBC
1500 - 3000 cells/ mm3
Monocytes
They leave the circulation, enter tissue, and differentiate into phagocytic macrophages that activate lymphocytes to start an immune response
Defend against viruses, bacterial parasites, & chronic infections like tuberculosis
kidney-shaped nuclei
largest leukocytes
4-8 % WBC
100-700 cells/ mm3
Leucopoiesis
Starts with a hemocytoblast
Two stem cells are produced: myeloid & lymphoid
Occurs in the red bone marrow
Leukemia
Cancerous conditions involving WBCs
Bone marrow becomes totally occupied with cancerous leukocytes
Immature WBCs are found in the bloodstream
Thrombocytes or Platelets
Function in the clotting mechanism by forming a temporary plug that helps seal breaks in blood vessels
Magakaryocyte
Platelet formation starts with a hemocytoblast that develops into a megakaryocyte that breaks into "fragments"
Hemostasis
A series of reactions for stoppage of bleeding
Vascular Spasm
immediate vasoconstriction in response to injury
Platelet Plug Formation
Platelets do not stick to each other or to blood vessels
Stick to exposed collagen fibers and form a platelet plug
Release serotonin, which attract still more platelets
Positive feedback
Coagulation or Blood Clotting
A set of reactions in which blood is transformed from a liquid to a gel
Involves 13 clotting factors including fibrinogen - plasma protein that initiates production of fibers to produce a clot
Thrombus
a clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
thrombi can block circulation, resulting in tissue death
Coronary thrombosis
thrombus in blood vessel of the heart can trigger angina or a heart attack depending on severity of the blockage
Embolus/embolism
a thrombus freely floating in the blood stream
Pulmonary embolism
can impair the ability of the body to obtain oxygen
Cerebral embolism
can cause strokes cutting off circulation to the brain
Thrombocytopenia
condition where the number of circulating platelets is deficient
Petechiae
Spontaneous bleeding from small blood vessels all over the body
Caused by suppression or destruction of bone marrow
Treated with whole blood transfusions
Hemophilia
hereditary bleeding disorders caused by lack of clotting factors
Antigens
found on the surface of the RBC
Antibodies
in the blood plasma
Agglutination
a serious hemolytic reaction causing antigens and antibodies to stick together essentially "clumping" the blood
Blood type A
Antigen A
Antibody-Anti-B
Blood type B
Antigen B
Antibody-Anti-A
Blood type AB
Antigens A&B
Antibody-Neither Anti-A&B
Blood type O
Antigens-Neither A&B
Antibody-Both Anti-A&B
Rh+
Presence of the Rh antigens on RBCs
Rh-
Absence of the Rh antigens on RBCs
Sensitized
If an Rh- individual contacts Rh+ blood, anti-Rh antibodies form and the individual is now
Erythroblastosis fetalis
Rh- mother, carries an Rh+ baby
RhoGAM
can prevent the Rh- mother from becoming sensitized
Blood typing
When serum containing anti-A, anti-B or anti Rh antibodies is added to blood, agglutination will occur between the antibodies and the corresponding antigens

Agglutination indicates a positive reaction and therefore the unknown blood has that antigen
Transfusion reaction
Occur when mismatched blood is infused

Donor's cells are attacked by the recipient's plasma antibodies causing:

Diminished oxygen-carrying capacity
Clumped cells that impede blood flow
Ruptured RBCs that release free hemoglobin into the bloodstream
Circulating hemoglobin precipitates in the kidneys and causes renal failure