Ch. 4 Morphology Vocabulary
Terms in this set (46)
(Af) A bound morpheme that modifies the meaning and/or syntactic (sub)category of the stem in some way.
The morphological process whereby an affix is attached to a root or stem.
Is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination: words may contain different morphemes to determine their meaning, but each of these morphemes (including stems and affixes) remains in every aspect unchanged after their union, thus resulting in generally easier deducible word meanings if compared to fusional languages, which allow modifications in either or both the phonetics or spelling of one or more morphemes within a word, generally for shortening the word on behalf of an easier pronunciation.
Variants of a morpheme.
Is the phenomenon of a phoneme or morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.
Two or more words that sound the same but have different meanings.
Is a language that conveys grammatical relationships without using inflectional morphemes.
A morpheme that must be attached to another element.
Is a root which cannot occur as a separate word apart from any other morpheme.
Closed Lexical Category
Is a linguistic category of words (or more precisely lexical items), which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behaviour of the lexical item in question.
Creating a new word by combining two or more existing words (fire + engine).
A word used to connect clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause.
A functional morpheme (as opposed to a content morpheme) is a morpheme which simply modifies the meaning of the word, rather than supplying the root meaning of the word.
Words that have meaning. They can be compared to grammatical words, which are structural. Nouns, main verbs, adjectives and adverbs are usually content words.
A word-formation process by which a new word is built from a stem - usually through the addition of an affix - that changes the word class and/or basic meaning of the word (from teach (verb) to teach -er (noun).
A modifying word that determines the kind of reference a noun or noun group has, for example a, the, every.
The underlying representation (UR) or underlying form (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.
A morpheme that can be a word by itself.
A morpheme which simply modifies the meaning of the word, rather than supplying the root meaning of the word.
A word whose purpose is more to signal grammatical relationship than the lexical meaning of a sentence.
Is a language in which one form of a morpheme can simultaneously encode several meanings.
Describes a series of increasingly smaller regions of a phonological utterance, each nested within the next highest region.
The linguistic phenomenon whereby words of different origins become identical in pronunciation.
The inclusion of the object or object reference within the inflected verb form, a type of word-formation frequent in American Indian languages.
Insert (a formative element) into the body of a word.
The change of form that words undergo to mark such distinctions as those of case, gender, number, tense, person, mood, or voice.
Contribution of information, ideas, opinions, or the like.
Is a syntactic category for elements that are part of the lexicon of a language.
A speaker's mental dictionary, which contains information about the syntactic properties, meaning, and phonological representation of a language's words.
The smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function.
The system of categories and rules involved in word formation and interpretation.
Open Lexical Category
Constantly acquire new members, and closed word classes, which acquire new members infrequently if at all.
To produce and send out.
Occurs only with bases (root words) which begin with a consonant.
Highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).
A word, letter, or number placed before another.
A word governing, and usually preceding, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element in the clause.
Is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process, especially in word formation.
Is a word that takes the place of a noun.
Is the element that is added to the base as a result of a reduplication operation.
Process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.
Has no prefix or suffix — it's the most basic part of a word.
An affix is articulated at the same time as some other affix or affixes in a word's stem; exists only in visual-gestural languages.
A long and thin supportive or main section of something.
A morpheme added at the end of a word to form a derivative.
The occurrence of an unrelated form to fill a gap in a conjugation.