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prentice hall textbook!


drug that prevents pain during surgery


the process of taking over and forcing off land from former peasant farmers.


separating iron from its ore


wealth to invest in enterprises ie. shipping, mines, railroads, and factories.


place that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods


Privately built road that charges a fee to travelers who use it


movement of people from rural areas to cities


multistory building divided into crowded apartments

labor unions

an organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions


the idea that society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number of its citizens"


people as a whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the ---->

means of production

the farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produced and distributed goods


a form of socialism that sees class struggles employers and employees as unavoidable


the working class

Jethro Tull

invented the seed drill

Thomas Newcomen

invented the steam engine

Richard ArkWright

invented the waterframe

George Stephenson

developed the first steam powered locomotive

John Wesley

creator of Methodism

Adam Smith

main prophet of laissez-faire. author of the Wealth of Nations. asserted the free market

Malthus and Ricardo

said that population would outgrow the food production, urged people to have less kids.

Jeremy Bentham

"father of utilitarianism"

Robert Owen

a Utopian, believed that the conditions people lived in shaped their characters. built a model factory in Scotland. no child labor

Karl Marx

German philosopher, anti-Utopian,


self sufficient communities in which all work was shared and all property was owned in common.

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