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25 terms

world history chapter 7

prentice hall textbook!
STUDY
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anesthetic
drug that prevents pain during surgery
enclosure
the process of taking over and forcing off land from former peasant farmers.
smelt
separating iron from its ore
capital
wealth to invest in enterprises ie. shipping, mines, railroads, and factories.
factory
place that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods
turnpike
Privately built road that charges a fee to travelers who use it
urbanization
movement of people from rural areas to cities
tenements
multistory building divided into crowded apartments
labor unions
an organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions
utilitarianism
the idea that society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number of its citizens"
socialism
people as a whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the ---->
means of production
the farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produced and distributed goods
communism
a form of socialism that sees class struggles employers and employees as unavoidable
proletariat
the working class
Jethro Tull
invented the seed drill
Thomas Newcomen
invented the steam engine
Richard ArkWright
invented the waterframe
George Stephenson
developed the first steam powered locomotive
John Wesley
creator of Methodism
Adam Smith
main prophet of laissez-faire. author of the Wealth of Nations. asserted the free market
Malthus and Ricardo
said that population would outgrow the food production, urged people to have less kids.
Jeremy Bentham
"father of utilitarianism"
Robert Owen
a Utopian, believed that the conditions people lived in shaped their characters. built a model factory in Scotland. no child labor
Karl Marx
German philosopher, anti-Utopian,
Utopians
self sufficient communities in which all work was shared and all property was owned in common.