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Anatomy 6B

Anatomy 6B
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Nervous System
Exceptionally well-organized system that is responsible for coordinating all the many activities that are performed by the body.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles; it regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, heart, and breathing.
Brain
The largest and most complex mass of nerve tissue in the body.
Cerebum
Makes up the bulk of the brain.
Diencephalon
Located in the uppermost part of the midbrain and has two main parts, called Thalamus and Hypothalamus
Neuron
Primary structured unit of the nervous system. Is composed of a cell body and nucleus.
Dendrites
Nerve fibers extending from the nerve cell that receive impluses from other neurons.
Axon
Sends impluses away from the cell body to other neurons, glands, or muscles.
Nerves
Whitish cords, made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impluses are transmitted.
Reflex
Automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of an impluse from a sensory receptor along the afferent neuron to the spinal cord and a responsive impluse back along an efferent neuron to a muscle, causing a reaction.
Spinal Accessory Nerve (XI)
This nerve brings about movement in the head and shoulders. Also is involved in the production of voice sounds.
Trigeminal Nerve (V)
Contains sensory fibers that relay signals from the head, face, and teeth. (Chewing muscles). The branches are known as opthalmic, mazillary, and mandibular.
Facial Nerve (VII)
Branches of this nerve innervate the taste buds, the skin of the external ear, and the salivary and lacrimal glands. Also controls facial expressions.
Fifth Cranial Nerve
The largest of the cranial nerves. Chief sensory nerve of the face, and it serves as the motor nerve of the muscles that control chewing. Consists of three branches.
Ophthalmic Nerve
Affects the skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, and interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball and nasal passage.
Mandibular Nerve
Affects the muscles of the chin and lowe lip
Maxillary Nerve
Affects the upper part of the face.
Supraorbital Nerve
Affects the skin of the forehead, scalp, eyebrow, and upper eyelid.
Seventh Cranial Nerve
Is the chief motor nerve of the face. Also called the facial nerve.
Cervical Nerve
Affects the side of the neck and the platysma muscle.
Posterior Auricular Nerve
Affects the muscles behind the ear at the base of the skull.
Eleventh Cranial Nerve
Type of motor nerve that controls the motion of the neck and shoulder muscles. Also known as the accessory nerve.
Circulatory System
Controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels. Also known as cardiovascular system or vascular system.
Vascular System
Consists of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries for the distribution of the blood throughout the body.
Heart
Often referred to as the bodys pump. Muscular, cone-shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system.
Pericardium
The heart is enclosed by this membrane.
Artrium
Thin-walled, upper chamber of the heart through which blood is pumped to the ventricles. There is a right and a left.
Pulmonary Circulation
Sends the blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated
Systemic Circulation
Carries the oxygenated blood from the heart throughout the body and ack to the heart again.
Mitral Valve
or bicuspid valve; a flap like structure that prevents the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the left atrium to the left ventricle
Arteries
Thick-walled, muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the arterioles.
Aorta
The largest artery in the body.
Veins
Thin-walled blood vessels that less elastic that arteries. Contain cup-like valves that keep the blood flowing in one direction. Located closer to the skin surface.
Blood
Nurtritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system and is considered connective tissue. There are 8-10 pints.
Platelets
Much smaller than red blood cells. They contribute to the blood-clotting process, which stops bleeding. Also known as thrombocytes.
Commom Carotid Arteries
Main source of blood supply to the head, face, and neck. Located on either side of the neck.
Facial Artery
Supplies blood to the lower region of the face, mouth and nose. Also know as external maxillary artery.
Frontal Artery
Supplies blood to the forehead and upper eyelids.
Transverse Facial Artery
Supplies blood to the skin and masseter
Posterior Auricular Artery
Supplies the scalp, the area behind and about the ear, and the skin behind the ear.
Lymph
Clear, yellowish fluid that circulates the lymph spaces of the body; carries waste and impurities away from the cells.
Interstitial Fluid
Blood plasma found in the spaces between tissue cells.
Endocrine System
Group of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body.
Exocrine Glands
Produce a substance that travels through small. tube-like ducts. Sweat and oil glands of the skin belong to this group. Also known as duct glands.
Endocrine Glands
Release secretions called hormones directly into the bloodstream, which in turn influence the welfare of the entire body. Also known as ductless glands.
Pituitary Gland
Most complex organ of the endocrine system. It affects almost every physiologic process of the body.
Thyroid Gland
Controls how quickly the body burns energy.
Pancreas
Secretes enzyme-producing cells that are responsible for digesting carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Cells within the control insulin and glucagon production.
Digestive System
Responsible for changing food into nutrients and waste.