17 terms

Miller and Levine Biology Chapter 16

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evolution
the process of changing over time.
fossil
preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms.
artificial selection
selective breeding of plants and animals to promote the occurrence of desirable traits in offspring.
adaptation
heritable characteristics that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in an environment.
fitness
how well an organism can survive and reproduce in its environment.
natural selection
process by which organisms that are most suited to their environment survive and reproduce out successfully.
biogeography
study of past and present distribution of organisms.
homologous structure
structures that are shared by related species and that have been inherited by a common ancestor.
analogous structure
body parts that share common function, but not structure.
vestigial structure
structure inherited from ancestors but have lost all original function due to different selection processes.
The Beagle
the ship that Darwin explored on.
Hutton & Lyell
led to Darwin's theories by their theories of old earth, uniformitarianism, and other geological processes.
Lamarck
believed that organisms could change during their lifetimes to become a more prefect creature by using or not using certain parts of their bodies. also believed these acquired traits could be passed down to the organisms offsprings.
Malthus
believed that if human population grew unchecked there would eventually be no space and food for everyone.
survival of the fittest
idea that only the organisms that are the strongest and can adapt to their environment will survive.
carbon dating
the process used to test the amount of time a fossil has been in existence.
Wallace
wrote to Darwin about his theories of distribution of plants and animals.