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History Study guide 1
Terms in this set (87)
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of protestant churches.
One of a group of French moderates in the 16th century religious conflicts holding national unity of greater importance the the absolute predominance of a single sect and advocating religious toleration as the policy of the government.
Michel de Montaigne
Leading thinkers of the Politiques group. Famous for writing essays.
"What do i know"
He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Ptolemaic World View
named after ptolemy, theory that everything revolved around the earth.
Unintentionally started revolution Polish Priest. Pope told him to reform astronomy. Came up with the idea that everything revolves around the sun.
The belief that the sun is the center of the universe.
Danish astronemer, believed old views that earth was the center found things with naked eye hoers had not.
German man that worked with Brahe, but Kepler went a bit further. First to realize the motion of planets was not a perfect circle.
Invented a telescope to see the universe had to recant his views because his beliefs went against religious views.
Discovered gravity and was praised for it
In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton wrote this. It was filled with contributions to many areas of science, and included the three well-known laws of motion.
Writer and politician. Made empiricism.
the view that knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and science flourishes through observation and experiment.
felt you must start with the very basics.
"Cogito ergo Sum"
I am, therefore i exist.
king of France from 1643 to 1715
A nickname for Louis xiv. Louis himself adopted the sun as his emblem.
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
The king has absolute power and authority
"I'etat c'est moi"
I am the state
a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles
Social Contract Theory
The belief that people are free and equal by natural right, and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed; espoused by John Locke and influential in the writing of the declaration of independence.
believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society
Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
Believed all people have a right to life, liberty, and property
Second Treatise on Government
Written by John Locke, maintains that people set up civil gov'ts to protect life, liberty and property - if the gov't oversteps its function it becomes a tyranny and the people have the right ot rebel
A Leader of the enlightenment, 3rd President of the United States, chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
Declaration of Independence
The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
Baron de Montesquieu
Fascinated by what he saw as devision of power.
Spirit of the Laws
Written by Montesquieu, this document outlined the concept of separation of powers
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
Age of reason
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
thinkers or philosophers of the Enlightenment
French writer who was the embodiment of 18th century Enlightenment. Wrote Letters From England and Candide.
a humorous novel by Voltaire that slyly uses the tale to expose the corruption and hypocrisy of European society.
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
The will of the majority.
Edited and published the first edition of the Encyclopedia
opposition to the political power of religious institutions or the clergy
Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade
Wealth of Nations
This is the 18th century book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith in which he spells out the first modern account of free market economies.
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
term economists use to describe the self regulating nature of the marketplace
theory that a country should sell more goods to other coutires than it buys
the concept that there is a universal order built into nature that can guide moral thinking
system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment
separated into House of Lords and the House of Commons
House of Lords
legislative body made up of hereditary nobles and clergy; could veto any bill passed by the other body until reforms made it into a largely ceremonial body
House of Commons
one of the houses of Parliament including wealthy landowners and rich business leaders that represent the middle class and are elected to office
This political party favored Parliament over the crown
the leader of the executive branch of a parliamentary government
House of Hanover
the English royal house that reigned from 1714 to 1901 (from George I to Victoria)
French and Indian War
a war in North America between France and Britain (both aided by indian tribes)
"No taxation without representation"
reflected the colonists' belief that they should not be taxed because they had no direct representatives in Parliament
the revolution of the American colonies against Great Britain
Powerful Turkish empire that lasted from the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 until 1918 and reached its peak during the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent.
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
leading family in the Holy Roman Empire, ruled Austria
elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century
capital of Austria
a drama set to music
a composer from Austria, who was known for classical NEW STYLE
Austrian empress who unified her nation after her father's death
Former independent kingdom and state of Germany. In the late 19th century, it formed the central state of the German Empire, which was one of the largest in Europe.
Fredrick William 1
He was the Prussian ruler and got close with the junkers and made the region strong enough to challenge Austria.
War of Austrian Succession
Prussia invades the Holy Roman Empire
strongly conservative members of Prussia's wealthy landowning class
men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection; bound to the land.
Fredrick the Great
dedicated ruler of Prussia; enlarged Prussian army, abolished use of torture except in treason and murder cases; granted limited speech and press
Seven Years War
Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
Peter the Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweden
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women's equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Women."
Vindication of the Rights of Women
Book written by Wollstonecraft which explained that women should have equal rights with men in education, politics, and economics
The French Revolution
In 1789, the French Revolution was where the French people rebelled against their King to overthrow him. Afterwards, a republic was started, where revolutionists began to controversially cut the heads off of nobles. The Republican party was formed because of the French Revolution, and brought much inspiration to the U.S. at first. However, this didn't last long, as Federalists became afraid of the possibility of such extremes that were shown in France.
Assembly of Notables
A group of nobles and aristocrats invited by the king of France to discuss reform of the government.
15 sovereign courts in the french judicial system that checked the king's ability to tax and legislate arbitrarily
assembly of the estates of all France
made up of Bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Tennis Court Oath
vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a constitution was written; Secret meeting on a Tennis Court at night.
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