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Introduction to Computer Applications-Exam 1
Terms in this set (385)
Using the internet to store/access data/programs rather than storing/accessing data on the hard drive. . Cloud can be used in different ways
3 ways companies can provide services through the cloud
Paas-Patform as a service: provides software development environment where applications can be built and deployed. Virtul servers and operating systems
Iaas-Infrastructure as service: rent access to hardware (serers, storage you can use as needed to support your business
Saas-Software as service: using oftware that is not on your harddrive but rather is on remote servers usable by other across the itnernet
Players in cloud
Google docs & drive
Apple iCloud-automatic file syncing across devices
Microsoft 365-ccloudbased version of microsoft program
[Each of these are Saas]
Benefits of cloud
Not need to buy has much hardware, i uses the internet, great for collaborations-simultaneous documents edting from various places
Data ownership?-who owns the info
Privacy-does cloud ompany wach your behavior
Security-is ino you placee there safe from outside parties stealing it
Advertising-do you have to putup with a lot of ads and sales pitches as you access the info?
Adwarre: software provider makes money by selling screen space o time to marketer
Backing up data by storing a copy of data online
Cloud computing in which the services for cloud computing are provided for only one organization/entity. a infrastructure is maintained for a specific organization needing to access information stored there
Type of cloud computing in which the services of cloud computing is provided for the general public. computing resources are dynamically provisioned over the Internet
Uses a combination of both private and public cloud computing. multiple internal and external cloud providers within one infrastructure
Cloud collaboration is a way of sharing and co-authoring computer files through the use of cloud computing, whereby documents are uploaded to a central "cloud" for storage, where they can then be accessed by others.
Software as a service (SaaS Applications hosted on a remote server and accessed over the Interenet. its a software licensing and delivery model in which software is licensed on a subscription basis and is centrally hosted.
Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) is a standardized, highly automated offering, where compute resources, complemented by storage and networking capabilities are owned and hosted by a service provider and offered to customers on-demand. Customers are able to self-provision this infrastructure, using a Web-based graphical user interface that serves as an IT operations management console for the overall environment. API access to the infrastructure may also be offered as an option.
Platform as a service (PaaS) offers services for developing and deploying applications over the Internet, such as virtualized servers and operating systems. Platform as a service (PaaS) is a category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing and launching an app.
...Scalability is the capability of a system, network, or process to handle a growing amount of work, or its potential to be enlarged in order to accommodate that growth. For example, it can refer to the capability of a system to increase its total output under an increased load when resources (typically hardware) are added. An analogous meaning is implied when the word is used in an economic context, where scalability of a company implies that the underlying business model offers the potential for economic growth within the company.
...elasticity is defined as "the degree to which a system is able to adapt to workload changes by provisioning and de-provisioning resources in an autonomic manner, such that at each point in time the available resources match the current demand as closely as possible
an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building application software. In general terms, it's a set of clearly defined methods of communication between various software components. A good API makes it easier to develop a computer program by providing all the building blocks, which are then put together by the programmer. An API may be for a web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware, or software library. An API specification can take many forms, but often includes specifications for routines, data structures, object classes, variables, or remote calls. POSIX, Microsoft Windows API, the C++ Standard Template Library, and Java APIs are examples of different forms of APIs. Documentation for the API is usually provided to facilitate usage. The status of APIs in intellectual property law is controversial.
...Google Apps is a set of web applications provided by Google. These web applications include Google Email, Google Calendar, Google Docs, Google Talk (Chat), Google Mobile and Google Sites. ... Thus you can look at Google Apps as an online office suite.
Rutgers implementation of Google Apps
-depending on your viewpoint, much of what has occured already and will continue to occur may be eneficial to individuals and even society as a whole
-bt not everyone benefirs f for social and ecomomic reasons, they do not have access tot he same technological resources and advancements
[not everyone gets the benefit of internet access]
...An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, unmanned aircraft system (UAS), or by several other names, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
...A drone, in a technological context, is an unmanned aircraft. Drones are more formally known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or unmanned aircraft systems (UASes). Essentially, a drone is a flying robot. The aircrafts may be remotely controlled or can fly autonomously through software-controlled flight plans in their embedded systems working in conjunction with onboard sensors and GPS.
A smart city is an urban development vision to integrate multiple information and communication technology (ICT) and Internet of things (IoT) solutions in a secure fashion to manage a city's assets - the city's assets include, but are not limited to, local departments' information systems, schools, libraries, transportation systems, hospitals, power plants, water supply networks, waste management, law enforcement, and other community services
Which of the following is a disadvantage of Cloud Computing?
Cloud Computing depends on Internet Connections
According to the video Paradigm Shifts in Software,
every ___ years in the software business, we get a paradigm shift.
Order the following computing paradigms chronologically (oldest first): Main Frame Computing, Cloud Computing, Client-Server Computing
Main Frame Computing, Client-Server Computing, Cloud Computing
A visual image such as a chart or diagram used to represent information or data is called a(n) ______ .
Match each category (layer) of cloud computing to its description.
A. Applications hosted on a remote server and accessed over the Interenet
B. provide off-site server, storage, networking hardware which are rented and accessed over the Internet.
C. offers services for developing and deploying applications over the Internet, such as virtualized servers and operating systems.
Internet email and Google docs are popular models for
The word "cloud" in cloud computing represents what?
True or False: Cloud computing may be public or private.
Convert the binary number 10110011 to base 10
The base 10 number 43 is represented as ___ in Hexadecimal.
A device that forwards data packets along networks and is connected to at least two networks is called a
I byte = ___ bits. (Enter numerical answer)
A common configuration for representing colors is RGB with color representations from ____ to _____ . The color RED is represented by what triplet of values? _____ . Enter the values in parentheses separated by commas, no spaces.
(0,0,0) (255,255,255) (255,0,0)
Which of the following are considered peripherals? (Choose all that apply.)
3. CD ROM Drive
RCS, originally called Radio Computing Services, is a provider of scheduling and broadcast software for radio, Internet and television stations.
Hidde inside legit documents, media, files, and software
Make copies of itself
Tries sto infect other computers nad dvices
Misleading but real looking email that tricks users into revealing personal or account info when they reply or follow enclosed links to fake reproductions of popular websites
Hacking technique whereby domain name servers are secretly modified to redirect users to fake, or "spoofed" version of real websites
small files placed on computer system as we use the web. benefit -if you go to the same website repeatedly, they can keep track of where you were and what you entered into the website ex rememebr the address you put in the website etc. negative- the cookies keep track of your behavior.....other sites like advertising could look at your cookies and modifying the cookies to you
HTTPS (also called HTTP over TLS, HTTP over SSL, and HTTP Secure) is a protocol for secure communication over a computer network which is widely used on the Internet. HTTPS consists of communication over Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) within a connection encrypted by Transport Layer Security, or its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer. The main motivation for HTTPS is authentication of the visited website and protection of the privacy and integrity of the exchanged data.
...SFTP, which stands for SSH File Transfer Protocol, or Secure File Transfer Protocol, is a separate protocol packaged with SSH that works in a similar way over a secure connection.
...In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it. Encryption does not of itself prevent interference, but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is an encryption program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communication. PGP is often used for signing, encrypting, and decrypting texts, e-mails, files, directories, and whole disk partitions and to increase the security of e-mail communications. It was created by Phil Zimmermann in 1991
Public key encryption
Privat keys-not shared. Used to descramble the code
Public keys-shared with oothers
Encryption involves both types of keys
Mathematically based-currently encyption is unbreakable
Sender uses receivers publuc key t encrypt the message/info but only receiver can decrypt it since their private key is necessary to accoplish this
To break the code would take years, maybe centuries. It uses very large prime numbers
...In communication networks, a node (Latin nodus, 'knot') is either a redistribution point (e.g. data communications equipment), or a communication endpoint (e.g. data terminal equipment).
Network interface card (NIC)
Network topology (bus, ring, star, mesh)
Bus topology uses one main cable to which all nodes are directly connected. The main cable acts as a backbone for the network. One of the computers in the network typically acts as the computer server. The first advantage of bus topology is that it is easy to connect a computer or peripheral device.
rules governing how data is transferred.
Email: SMTP(simple mail transfer protol), IMAP[shows what messages are there-transfers message to device-but doesn't remove it from the server....doesn't show a copy on the computer it just shows you on the screen and saves it on the server], POP [transfer email completely and doesn't keep anything of it]
Fire Transfer(file transfer protocol):FTP, SFTP (Secure)
Web Pages: HTTP(hyper text transfer protocol)
Security: SSL/TSL-used to securely transfer internet info email web etc safely and privately
LAN (Local area network)
MAN (Metropolitan area network)
A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN).
WAN (Wide area network)
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Switching techniques: circuit/packet
Packet-switched networks move data in separate, small blocks -- packets -- based on the destination address in each packet. When received, packets are reassembled in the proper sequence to make up the message. Circuit-switched networks require dedicated point-to-point connections during calls.
Circuit-switched networks and packet-switched networks have traditionally occupied different spaces within corporations. Circuit-switched networks were used for phone calls and packet-switched networks handled data. But because of the reach of phone lines and the efficiency and low cost of data networks, the two technologies have shared chores for years.
...Asynchronous transmission is the transmission of data in which each character is a self-contained unit with its own start and stop bits and an uneven interval between them. Asynchronous transmission is also referred to as start/stop transmission.
Synchronous transmission is a data transfer method which is characterized by a continuous stream of data in the form of signals which are accompanied by regular timing signals which are generated by some external clocking mechanism meant to ensure that both the sender and receiver are synchronized with each other.
Bps (Bits per second)
a measurement of network speed-how much data passed ina given amound (15-150Mbps). bandwidth is the bit-rate of available or consumed information capacity expressed typically in metric multiples of bits per second. Variously, bandwidth may be characterized as network bandwidth, data bandwidth, or digital bandwidth
the delay before a transfer of data begins following an instruction for its transfer.
each computer can directly supply resources nfo et o all other computers on the network. Much of the internet is peer-to-peer. Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes.
central servers provide infor data resources to other nodes/workstations (clients). A client-server network is a central computer, also known as a server, which hosts data and other forms of resources. Clients such as laptops and desktop computers contact the server and request to use data or share its other resources with it.. A computer network in which one centralized, powerful computer (called the server) is a hub to which many less powerful personal computers or workstations (called clients) are connected.
The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet. Information that travels over the Internet does so via a variety of languages known as protocols.
WWW (World Wide Web)
The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet. The Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit data. Web services, which use HTTP to allow applications to communicate in order to exchange business logic, use the the Web to share information. The Web also utilizes browsers, such as Internet Explorer or Firefox, to access Web documents called Web pages that are linked to each other via hyperlinks. Web documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and video.
IP Address: static/dynamic
An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a unique number assigned to every device on a network. Just as a street address determines where a letter should be delivered, an IP address identifies computers on the Internet. Network devices use IP addresses to communicate with each other. When a device is assigned a static IP address, the address does not change. Most devices use dynamic IP addresses, which are assigned by the network when they connect and change over time.
End-to-end network architecture
IPv6 and IPv4
...A: IPv6 is the sixth revision to the Internet Protocol and the successor to IPv4. It functions similarly to IPv4 in that it provides the unique, numerical IP addresses necessary for Internet-enabled devices to communicate. However, it does sport one major difference: it utilizes 128-bit addresses.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol)/(Internal Protocol)
Html is the underlying language describing what a webpage looks like. <b> is the symbol for bold in html
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.
Hypertext is structured text that uses logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text. HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext.
IEEE (Instiute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) describes itself as "the world's largest technical professional society -- promoting the development and application of electrotechnology and allied sciences for the benefit of humanity, the advancement of the profession, and the well-being of our members."
The IEEE fosters the development of standards that often become national and international standards. The organization publishes a number of journals, has many local chapters, and several large societies in special areas, such as the IEEE Computer Society.
High speed internet connections
Cable modem (from cabel company)-fastest
DSL-cheaper and provides other services often like cloud
IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) is a standard email protocol that stores email messages on a mail server, but allows the end user to view and manipulate the messages as though they were stored locally on the end user's computing device(s).
Voice over Internet Protocol (Voice over IP, VoIP and IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet. The terms Internet telephony, broadband telephony, and broadband phone service specifically refer to the provisioning of communications services (voice, fax, SMS, voice-messaging) over the public Internet, rather than via the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
Domain Name Servers (DNS) are the Internet's equivalent of a phone book. They maintain a directory of domain names and translate them to Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (email) transmission. Short for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, a protocol for sending e-mail messages between servers. Most e-mail systems that send mail over the Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another; the messages can then be retrieved with an e-mail client using either POP or IMAP.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP). It is an open standards organization, with no formal membership or membership requirements.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), both frequently referred to as "SSL", are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network. Several versions of the protocols find widespread use in applications such as web browsing, email, Internet faxing, instant messaging, and voice-over-IP (VoIP). Websites use TLS to secure all communications between their servers and web browsers.
Web crawlers (or spiders)
A Web crawler, sometimes called a spider, is an Internet bot which systematically browses the World Wide Web, typically for the purpose of Web indexing (web spidering).
Web search engines and some other sites use Web crawling or spidering software to update their web content or indices of others sites' web content. Web crawlers can copy all the pages they visit for later processing by a search engine which indexes the downloaded pages so the users can search much more efficiently.
Crawlers consume resources on the systems they visit and often visit sites without tacit approval. Issues of schedule, load, and "politeness" come into play when large collections of pages are accessed. Mechanisms exist for public sites not wishing to be crawled to make this known to the crawling agent. For instance, including a robots.txt file can request bots to index only parts of a website, or nothing at all.
Meta tags are snippets of text that describe a page's content; the meta tags don't appear on the page itself, but only in the page's code. We all know tags from blog culture, and meta tags are more or less the same thing, little content descriptors that help tell search engines what a web page is about.
URL (Universal/Uniform Resource Locator)
Denial of Service attack DOS
Denial of service attack DOS-flood networks, routers, servers and sites with more packets than they can hanle-interfering with normal operation
Flood networks, routers, servers and sites with more packers that they can handle -- interfering with normal operation
A type of nefarious internet activity
How do you convert a decimal (base 10) to a binary number?
Why does a photo or video requires more memory than a text file and how are photos stored in the computer?
Collection of infected computers that have been turned into "bots" or "zombies" that hackers can control and user for malicious activities
Understand the chronological order of the development of computing technologies
and social media events.
Understand threats to our on-line security and privacy
Representation of data
The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. Octal numerals can be made from binary numerals by grouping consecutive binary digits into groups of three (starting from the right)
hexadecimal (also base 16, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 0-9 to represent values zero to nine, and A, B, C, D, E, F (or alternatively a, b, c, d, e, f) to represent values ten to fifteen.
The physical components that make up a computer system
Modem or network is not enough
Communiation sw is also eeded ex safari
TRIM in SSDs
Dual/Quad Core Processor
Computer chips with more than one processor etched on to them
the zeroes and ones that make up all our cell phone conver- sations, bank records, and everything else that gets communicated or stored using modern electronics.
Central processing unit, main component where computer information is manipulated on small step after another. It is made up of millions of components
The common format (standard) used to represent characters on a computer. Most keyboards send this codes to the rest of the computer
-Pathways that sends signals to one way to another
- Electronic connections between devices
- Cables, Connectors, Protocols
An RGB color represented by the triplet (220, 65, 43) is closest in color to which of the components, RED, GREEN, or BLUE. Explain your answer.
- Read only memory and cannot be changed
- Info loaded at factory
- Used for "booting" and unlikely to change routines
- Random access memory and it is read and write (changeable)
- Currently 4 Gbyte to 16 Gbytes
- Most software is in this as it is being executed (used)
- The more RAM you have, the more software that can be run at a time
Storage space on processor chip itself
Primary storage (Memory)
-Fast, electronic, expensive, limited memory that is usually used for temporary purposes
- The more more memory you have the more you can do simultaneously
- Where software and documents found as you are using it
USB (Universal serial bus)
-Hot swappable, plug-n-play
- Way to connect peripherals
- You can connect many devices such as mice, keyboards, digital cameras, external disk drives, etc
Connecting hardware to the main unit of the computer
- Internal, external
- Ports, cables
Online service provider safe harbors
Anonymity (related to Social Networks)
VPN (Virtual Private Network)
the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video. The advantage of steganography over cryptography alone is that the intended secret message does not attract attention to itself as an object of scrutiny. Steganography includes the concealment of information within computer files. In digital steganography, electronic communications may include steganographic coding inside of a transport layer, such as a document file, image file, program or protocol. Media files are ideal for steganographic transmission because of their large size.
What are the FOUR steps in protecting your digital privacy recommended be the Internet
- 'Fracture' your digital identity. Strategically use different email addresses, browsers, credit cards, and maybe even devices, for different web activities (like personal, work and online shopping) to make it more difficult to collect one cohesive data set about you.
- Proactively check privacy settings. Browsers, devices and apps are often set to share your personal data out of the box. Find and review default settings and see if you're comfortable with them. A quick search for "default settings" and a specific type of browser or device will yield information about that system's settings and how to find and change them.
- Regularly and actively review your browser's cookies. You may be shocked by how many cookies have been set on your browser by sites you weren't aware of visiting. See if your browser lets you block third-party cookies. If not, there are plug-ins you can use. you can opt for browser privacy settings such as 'Do Not Track' and 'Private' browsing to protect against default cookies.
- Know the privacy policies of the devices, websites, social sharing services and applications you use. Find out what permissions apply to the content you upload and how it can be used.
What is meant by "right to be forgotten" as it refers to the Internet?
- It argues that old, inaccurate or even just irrelevant data should be taken out of search results if the person involved requests it.
Japan, Europe, and the US have all enacted the same data privacy laws (True or False)
What is the difference between integrity and authenticity as they refer to digital messaging?
- Integrity is that the message was not tampered with in transit
- Authenticity is that the person who sent it is the right person
What is a cipher? Describe Caesar's Cipher.(BTB)
What is a cipher? Describe Caesar's Cipher.(BTB) - Cipher is a method for transforming a message into an obscured form, together with a way of undoing the transformation to recover the message
- Julius Caesar's use of a cipher in his letters to the orator Cicero, with whom he was planning and plotting in the dying days of the Roman Republic: "... if he [Caesar] had any- thing confidential to say, he wrote it in cipher, that is, by so changing the order of the letters of the alphabet, that not a word could be made out. If any- one wishes to decipher these, and get at their meaning, he must substitute the fourth letter of the alphabet, namely D, for A, and so with the others." In other words, Caesar used a letter-by-letter translation to encrypt his messages:
What is locational privacy? Give THREE threats to locational privacy and briefly explain why each
is a threat.
- the ability of an individual to move in public space with the expectation that under normal circumstances their location will not be systematically and secretly recorded for later use
- Three threats are:
1. Transit Passes and access cards (allows access to restricted areas - if the card reports what the person did the person could be at risk
2. Location - Based search (different search results based on where the person is located) - provides a record of everywhere you go and what you are searching for while is a location
3. Automated tolling and stoplight enforcement (In many metropolitan areas, drivers are encouraged to use small electronic transponders (FastTrak, EZpass) to pay tolls at bridges and tunnels; electronic cash) - Straightforward but privacy-insensitive implementations of congestion-pricing systems simply track drivers and use the tracking information to generate tolls, keeps record of license plate and everywhere a person went
Give one advantage and one disadvantage of "cookies" dropped on your computer
Advantage = a better user experience with quicker way to search and log in
- Disadvantage = easier to gather information about the site's visitors, and take info and know what the person is doing
Metadata is data about data. Metadata is stored about the pictures you take with your phone.
Does your phone store GPS data when you take a picture...do you know how to determine if it
does? Give one advantage and one disadvantage of your phone storing GPS location of the
pictures you take.
-Yes phone stores GPS data when taking picture
- Advantage = search results based on results, not having to type in addredd where you are located
- Disadvantage = destroy relationships; makes other wonder about you and ask questions, can allow people to track you
Compare the terms privacy and security
- Privacy is the individual's right to keep certain information private. Privacy is about informational self- determination.
Security is a tool to build privacy.
- Security technology allows an individual's decision to protect his/her privacy to be enforced.
What is the difference between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 (BTB)
Simple, cheap, single-person computers which often depend on one main microprocessor
ex: Persoanl computers, desktop computers, Tablets
Between components on motherboard
Allows input and output devices to transmit data
A keyboard sends characters as input to the computer. What format would a keyboard use to send this info in binary?
What is the equivalent 16 digit binary number for the hexadecimal value BO36
1011 0000 0011 0110
In binary, what is the next number after 0000 1011
What format might a scanner use to encode an image ?
What is meant by Distributed Denial-of-Service Attack?
As it relates to the Internet and WWW, what is a Web Crawler or Web spider?
Briefly explain the relationship between SSL/TLS and browsing on the Internet.
Briefly explain the analogy of TCP/IP with the US Postal System.
Give a brief outline of the history of the Internet by listing the main developments and the dates of
those developments (5 events is sufficient)
Give an advantage and a disadvantage of VOIP.
Give a brief explanation of the hierarchy of domain name syntax (http://www.cs.rutgers.edu. )- or
draw a picture to describe this. (video DNS Explained)
What is the Internet Society and what are its responsibilities?
Provide two endings to this sentence (from information acquired in the resources). The Internet is for
everyone but it won't be if.....
but it won't be if it isn't affordable by all who wish to partake of its services; but it won't be if Governments restrict access to it
What is W3 Consortium and its responsibilities?
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3). the consortium is made up of member organizations which maintain full-time staff for the purpose of working together in the development of standards for the World Wide Web
Protocol, in computer science, a set of rules or procedures for transmitting data between electronic devices, such as computers. In order for computers to exchange information, there must be a preexisting agreement as to how the information will be structured and how each side will send and receive it. Perhaps the most important computer protocol is OSI (Open Systems Interconnection), a set of guidelines for implementing networking communications between computers. Among the most important sets of Internet protocols are TCP/IP, HTTPS, SMTP, and DNS.
A piece of a message transmitted over a packet-switching network. One of the key features of a packet is that it contains the destination address in addition to the data. In IP networks, packets are often called datagrams.
Such bookstres cafes etc places to go where there is free wireless acess
IP Address: static / dynamic
IPv6 and IPv4
web crawlers (or spiders)
Computer security, also known as cybersecurity or IT security, is the protection of computer systems from the theft or damage to the hardware, software or the information on them, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
It includes controlling physical access to the hardware, as well as protecting against harm that may come via network access, data and code injection, and due to malpractice by operators, whether intentional, accidental, or due to them being tricked into deviating from secure procedures.
ISP Internet service privder
Comapany people pay to get accedd to the internet
Ofen cable and phone companies nowadayys
Nowadays cable and phone companies cna serve this perposeAn Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing and using the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise privately owned.
Internet services typically provided by ISPs include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, and colocation.
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), commonly informally termed a web address (a term which is not defined identically) is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. A URL is a specific type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), although many people use the two terms interchangeably. A URL implies the means to access an indicated resource, which is not true of every URI. URLs occur most commonly to reference web pages (http), but are also used for file transfer (ftp), email (mailto), database access (JDBC), and many other applications.
Phishing is the attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and, indirectly, money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
a spoofing attack is a situation in which one person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data, thereby gaining an illegitimate advantage.
Pharming[a] is a cyber attack intended to redirect a website's traffic to another, fake site. Pharming can be conducted either by changing the hosts file on a victim's computer or by exploitation of a vulnerability in DNS server software. DNS servers are computers responsible for resolving Internet names into their real IP addresses. Compromised DNS servers are sometimes referred to as "poisoned". Pharming requires unprotected access to target a computer, such as altering a customer's home computer, rather than a corporate business server.
Electronic spamming is the use of electronic messaging systems to send an unsolicited message (spam), especially advertising, as well as sending messages repeatedly on the same site. While the most widely recognized form of spam is email spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online classified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social spam, spam mobile apps, television advertising and file sharing spam
Adware, or advertising-supported software, is any software package that automatically renders advertisements in order to generate revenue for its author. The advertisements may be in the user interface of the software or on a screen presented to the user during the installation process. The functions may be designed to analyze which Internet sites the user visits and to present advertising pertinent to the types of goods or services featured there. The term is sometimes used to refer to software that displays unwanted advertisements known as malware
sofware that can monitor, record, and report on user's behaviour without their knowledge. May even change computer settings andrediect them to certain bbwebpages. Might be spread through viruses. Spyware is software that aims to gather information about a person or organization without their knowledge, that may send such information to another entity without the consumer's consent, or that asserts control over a device without the consumer's knowledge.
"Spyware" is mostly classified into four types: adware, system monitors, tracking cookies, and trojans;examples of other notorious types include digital rights management capabilities that "phone home", keyloggers, rootkits, and web beacons.
security mechanism where they control what kind of activities can happen on the network, monitor the packets and let some packets through. Most computers have this software running on it. . a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. A firewall typically establishes a barrier between a trusted, secure internal network and another outside network, such as the Internet, that is assumed not to be secure or trusted. Firewalls are often categorized as either network firewalls or host-based firewalls. Network firewalls filter traffic between two or more networks; they are either software appliances running on general purpose hardware, or hardware-based firewall computer appliances. Host-based firewalls provide a layer of software on one host that controls network traffic in and out of that single machine.Firewall appliances may also offer other functionality to the internal network they protect, such as acting as a DHCPor VPN server for that network.
Distributed denial of serice attack DDOS-use many computers possibly a botnet to conduct a DOS attack
In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack where the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet. Denial of service is typically accomplished by flooding the targeted machine or resource with superfluous requests in an attempt to overload systems and prevent some or all legitimate requests from being fulfilled.
set of 6000 network relays that can be used to hide the router network traffic has taken making very hard impossible for networrk activities to be monitored
Tor is free software for enabling anonymous communication. The name is derived from an acronym for the original software project name "The Onion Router". Tor directs Internet traffic through a free, worldwide, volunteer network consisting of more than seven thousand relays to conceal a user's location and usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis.
AKA Information Graphics use images to represent data to provide speed and ease in understanding information
Is a means of detecting if a user is actually a person or a robot/abusive script.
Getting the input of a large group of people through the internet.
Getting money from a large group of people through the internet.
A platform for information gathering which is managed by the public.
Open Source Software
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, a flying device without a pilot.
Smart Home Technology
Provides control over the home and things within the home through computers and programs.
A car with advanced electronics
Another name for E-Commerce
Commercial transactions which are performed online
Briefly research on the Internet "Google Home" or "Amazon Echo" (two smart home technologies). List five smart home apps included in one of these smart home technologies and briefly describe how each works or what it accomplishes.
Google Home is a smart home technology that is voice activated and uses a variety of different apps including Youtube for playing videos, Pandora for playing music from stations the listener can create, google calendar which provides schedule keeping and the listing of tasks, netflix for watching movies, Toshiba which allows for control over a variety of electronics like televisions, and Philips Hue to control the lights.
Name at least two cloud computing applications that you regularly use.
Two of the cloud computing applications I use regularly are Samsung Cloud and Google Docs.
Briefly explain how reCapcha helps translate old books?
ReCapcha takes the task that people were performing with Capcha, reading a difficult to read text and ting it to prove they're human, and uses that text to digitize books by showing two words (one word the computer can understand and one word from an old book that the computer can't understand) and shows that to the user. If the user gets the first word correct then they assume there's a decent change the word from the old book is correct and if ten people type in the same answer for the word from the book then essentially it shows the word has been digitized correctly and over times those words accumulate until an entire book/books are digitized.
Give one reason healthcare industry is moving quickly to cloud computing (what ways will (does) healthcare utilize the cloud)?
Use of the cloud can empower patients to monitor their own health, report medical information, and educate themselves.
How might drone swarms change the face of modern warfare? Briefly describe how the swarms are different than single drones in their operations and possible effects?
Google docs would be classified as what: IaaS, PaaS, or SaaS?
Google docs would be classified as SaaS.
List two advantages and two disadvantages of crowdfunding.
Two advantages of crowdfunding is that you retain intellectual property rights and you can see who funds you and use it to verify who your target market is which might help you market other fundraising endeavors etc in the future. Two disadvantages to crowdfunding are you have to use time and money to develop a page that will make people want to provide financial support and information, like your ideas, can be taken.
What is meant by Open Source Software and how is it different from (or related to) crowdsourcing
Give an example of how crowdsourcing can be used to benefit others?
What is meant by infographics?
Infograhics take data and present them in the form of a graphic/picture.
How does the following quote relate to the digital divide and to cloud computing? "This isn't about faster Internet or fewer dropped calls. It's about connecting every part of America to the digital age. It's about a rural community in Iowa or Alabama where farmers and small business owners will be able to sell their products all over the world. It's about a firefighter who can download the design of a burning building onto a handheld device; a student who can take classes with a digital textbook; or a patient who can have face-to-face video chats with her doctor." - President Obama, State of the Union Address, 2012.
There are parts of America that have limited internet access such as rural areas, Alaska etc
n Chapter 1 of Blown to Bits, seven Koans of Bits are identified. What is meant by koan? What ONE koan has the most meaning for you? Why?
Koans refer to the seven truths about bits because they are
paradoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke meditation and enlightenment.
These koans are oversimplifications and over-generalizations.
Koan -bit truth 1
It's All Just Bits: Your computer successfully creates the illusion that it contains photographs,
letters, songs, and movies. All it really contains is bits, lots of them, patterned
in ways you can't see. Your computer was designed to store just bits—all the
files and folders and different kinds of data are illusions created by computer
Koan-bit truth 2
Is Normal : Computers and networks
work differently. Every copy is perfect
Koan-bit truth 3
There Is Want in the Midst of Plenty:Vast as world-wide data storage is today, five years from now it will be ten
times as large. Yet the information explosion means, paradoxically, the loss
of information that is not online.
Koan-bit truth 4
Processing Is Power : The speed of a computer is usually
measured by the number of basic
operations, such as additions, that
can be performed in one second.
Koan-bit truth 5
More of the Same Can Be a Whole New Thing: Explosive growth is exponential growth—doubling at a steady rate. When something grows exponentially, for a long time it may seem not to
be changing at all. If we don't watch it steadily, it will seem as though something
discontinuous and radical occurred while we weren't looking.
That is why epidemics at first go unnoticed, no matter how catastrophic
they may be when full-blown. In the rapidly changing world of bits, it pays to notice even small changes,
and to do something about them.
Koan-bit truth 6
Nothing Goes Away: the data will all be kept forever,
unless there are policies to get rid of it. For
the time being at least, the data sticks
around. And because databases are intentionally
duplicated—backed up for security or shared while pursuing useful analyses—it is far from certain that data can
ever be permanently expunged, even if we wish that to happen. The Internet
consists of millions of interconnected computers; once data gets out, there is
no getting it back. Victims of identity theft experience daily the distress of
having to remove misinformation from the record. It seems never to go away.
Koan-bit truth 7
Bits Move Faster Than Thought: In the bits world, in which messages flow instantaneously, it sometimes
seems that distance doesn't matter at all. The instantaneous communication of massive amounts of information has
created the misimpression that there is a place called "Cyberspace," a land
without frontiers where all the world's people can be interconnected as
though they were residents of the same small town.
Summarize one example of Crowdsourcing that you are familiar with and why/how it is considered to be crowdsourcing.
Kickstart is an example of Crowdsourcing because people pitch their ideas on the site/app and others who think it is a good idea can contribute their own ideas and/or funding
In the article 30 Incredible Ways Technology Will Change Education by 2028, the author suggests that we may be leading towards learning simulations replacing teachers, diverse learning forms replacing schools, and cloud-based education becoming the normal mode, not the exception. List at
least two benefits and at least two harmful effects that these moves may have our society or on the individual student.
Two benefits could be that it could provide teachers to areas where it is difficult to provide teachers to like rural areas and it can provide teachers that are unbiased to anyone within diverse classrooms. Two negatives are that they will be very costly and they wont be able to provide services like living teacher such as impromptu debate etc.
From the various readings and videos about cloud computing and its effects on society in general, describe, in your own words, how cloud computing enhances human communication, interaction and cognition? Address each of these three areas in your response.
Cloud computing enhances human communication because it allows humans to have access to communication with one another all of the time wherever they are so it has certainly increased the convenience of communication. Cloud computing has enhanced human interaction because now people can collaborate with people all over the world. It has enhanced cognition because it has provided access to a vast body of information and made it accessible to so many more people.
From the short video, what do you believe Douglas Rushkoff means when he says "Program or be Programmed?"
Computers and programs are such a large part of our lives but people, these days, don't know how they are created and what the purpose of the programs are at their core. "Program or be Programmed" essentially is saying learn how to program to understand these computers and be able to help create our future, which will be heavily influenced by the future innovations in programing, or you have to live in the world others create.
TA name & section number
Krishna Anantha Padmanabhan, 33
JT Chirco T
TRIM in SSDs
Dual/Quad Core Processor
Computer Virus, Worm, Trojan Horse
What is the difference between ROM and RAM?
How many Bytes in a Gigabyte?
How many Bytes in a Kilobyte?
List from smallest to largest: kilobyte, megabyte, byte, bit, terabyte, gigabyte
What does 56K Modem indicate about the modem? How does this speed generally compare to the
speed of DSL or Cable?
Compare a computer to a house using matching the following computer related terms to the house
Hard Drive Closet
How is data represented in a computer?
What is the job of the Operating System?
Give three examples of abstractions as related to computers or technology.
Give three examples of Operating Systems.
Give three examples of software applications
When we refer to an operating system, are we referring to hardware or software?
List from most general (most abstract) to most specific (least abstract): flash drive, byte, secondary
List from most general (most abstract) to most specific (least abstract): Microsoft Office, Software,
What are the differences: Computer Virus, Worm, Trojan Horse?
What is the difference between a 32-bit and 64-bit processor?
Look at the MacBookPro Technical Specifications. Explain as much as you can about them. Include
the following terms:
a. Display: 1680 x 1050 Retina Display
b. 2.0GHz dual-core Intel Core I5, Turbo Boost up to 3.1GHz with 4MB shared L3 Cache
c. 256GB PCIe-based onboard SSD
What is the difference between dual-core and quad-core processors? What are the advantages of a
Of the Eight Tips on Buying a Laptop (article), which three tips would you pay most attention to if
you were to purchase a laptop today. Explain your choices.
What is the difference between a modem and a router? List the following in device connection
order? Assume that the modem and router are two separate devices.
Modem ISP Router PC or wireless device Internet
What units are used to measure RAM? How much would be a reasonable choice when purchasing a computer?
What units are used to measure: Hard Drive Capacity? How much would be a reasonable choice when purchasing a
What units are used to measure: Processor Speed? What's good here?
What units are used to measure:USB Flash Drive capacity? What's good here?
What is the difference between a hard disk drive (HDD) and a solid-state drive (SSD)?
How can you REALLY delete data on your computer (give one example)?
What is the difference between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0? (BTB) and Web 3.0?
. What is the difference between digital footprints and digital fingerprints (BTB)? Give examples
What is meant by RFID? Give one common use of an RFID and site advantages/disadvantages of
employing this RFID (BTB).
Binary representation of data
ASCII is a code for representing English characters as numbers, with each letter assigned a number from 0 to 127. For example, the ASCII code for uppercase M is 77. Most computers use ASCII codes to represent text, which makes it possible to transfer datafrom one computer to another.
Lossy and lossless compression
Red green blue, An RGB color space is any additive color space based on the RGB color model. A particular RGB color space is defined by the three chromaticities of the red, green, and blue additive primaries, and can produce any chromaticity that is the triangle defined by those primary colors.
Convert the decimal number 76 to binary
Convert the binary number 101101 to decimal (base10).
Convert the decimal number 76 to hexadecimal.
Convert the hexadecimal number A3 to its decimal representation
How does the computer distinguish between a photo and a text file if everything is stored as bits?
What is the difference between lossy and lossless compression?
Which (lossy or lossless) would be
most appropriate forAn image saved to be studied by brain surgeons while performing delicate surgery
Which (lossy or lossless) would be
most appropriate for An image uploaded to use on a personal webpage.
Which (lossy or lossless) would be
most appropriate for A sound file used as background music for a home video where the song and video are to be
uploaded to YouTube.
d. A .zip file used to store
Which (lossy or lossless) would be
most appropriate for A .zip file used to store a directory of documents.
Which (lossy or lossless) would be
most appropriate for An image used as a thumbnail on your computer
Classify each of the following file types JPG, GIF, BMP, TIF, and PSD as lossy compression, lossless
compression, or not compressed.
. An RGB color represented by the triplet (220, 65, 43) is closest in color to which of the components,
RED, GREEN, or BLUE. Explain your answer.
In the movie, "The Martian", Mark Watney uses a hexadecimal system to communicate with NASA.
a. Why did he choose to use this system?
b. Using Watney's system, what is the following message: 57 45 4C 43 4F 4D 45
Define the term network and list three advantages provided by networks
Compare and contrast peer-to-peer networks with client-server networks.
Draw examples of the following LAN configurations: Ring, Star, Mesh, Bus. Give an advantage or
disadvantage of each configuration.
Describe the process followed by packet switching in transferring data.
List the necessary components of a wireless network. A picture will do just fine.
What is metadata (BTB)?
How can one "forge metadata"? (BTB)
What is steganography? How does it differ from cryptography? (BTB)
What happens to the data in deleted files (files you delete by clicking on the delete key)?(BTB)
What is the difference: DSL, Cable, FIOS ?
of the Internet and WWW
First computers came along-1940s & 1950s
twiter & reddit-2006, instagram-2010
Cloud computing now
major concepts dealing with ScarletDocs, Google sites, and Forms.
how to convert a decimal (base 10) number to binary and vice-versa.
how hexadecimal numbers convert to base 10 and vice-versa.
why a photo or video requires more memory than a text file and how
photos might be stored in the computer
Understand the chronological order of the development of computing technologies
and social media events.
a way to make a larger network but not everything is allowed through. They increase traffick within the local area network (LAN) a little bit but not as much as if everything was on the LAN.
Cotent delivery network (CDN)
Copanies have cloud services or otherwise distribute lots of info to their users ex netflix. Rely on server farms that have a copy of the original information. Hat speeds things up and the original server wont have as much traffick going to it.
Remote access (telnet)
Using one ompter-the one you are on(local) to access a distant computer (remote) so you can use the commandsa and softwware on it
SSH (secure version) of telnet to protect against IP sniffing. Before the packets are sent out the info being sent is encoded, then sent out...so if someone grabs it it's just an encoded mess
IP sniffing-others grabbing packets not addressed to their computer. It's a security problem
Plaintext versus encrypted
Malicious softeware (Malware) issues
-privacy: is anyone watchign what you are doing?
-security: controling who has access to info
-authenticiy: is the info really fro who it claims tobe from [digital signatures]
-integrity: can one be sure the received info is what the sender originlly sent
Malware sread in various ways-email, the web, chat, ftp, flash
May use social engineering methods
Risks: compromised sstems, loss of privacy, hijacked accounts, identity theft
open proxy servers
sites you cna use as an inermediary acess other parts of the internet anonymously
-alternative authentication ethods: biometric data (fingerprints, facial recognition), two factor login [like bank sends message to phone with code etc and I need that to log in online], captacha/recaptacha
-secure protocls: ssl[security protocol to secure communication between webstes and web servers], sftp, https
-anti virus anti spyware
-RADS: go to softtware.rutgers.edu
One major concern of cloud computing is
security of data
allows a group of organizations with similar needs to share an infrastructure
Cloud computing system must make copies of its clients' information and store that information on other devices. Making copies of data as a backup is called:
The base ten number 192 can be represented in binary as
Hard Drive Capacity is measured in
Examples of peripherals?
Printer, CD ROM Drive , Scanner
A reasonable description of the speed of a computer's processor is:
The Internet of things (stylised Internet of Things or IoT) is the internetworking of physical devices, vehicles (also referred to as "connected devices" and "smart devices"), buildings, and other items—embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that enable these objects to collect and exchange data
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