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Terms in this set (38)
Processing in gaining knowledge and comprehension
- Master at observation, wife was critical to theories, observed 3 kids.
- Conducted simplistic/naturalistic experiments.
- Taught at a school, kids made consistent mistakes, looked at what lead to those kinds of mistakes.
Child Cognition: Old View vs. New/Piaget's View
Old view: kids have the same understanding and thinking as adults but with less knowledge
Piaget's view: Kids have a different way of thinking than adults
- Most influential child psychologist of the 20th century.
- Framed questions and provided methods we use in development psych today
- Not all of the details in his theories were true but they give a broad understanding in development progress
Fundamental Question: What makes human intellect?
How do we take sensations and make them into concepts? What is the nature of these concepts? How do these concepts change?
- The child is a scientist
- Child constructs own knowledge
- Learns on own, not only from others (central to Piaget's theories)
- Intrinsically motivated to learn
Child understand world through schemas
Psychological structures that organize experience; mental categories of related events, objects. They are constantly changing.
3 Processes That Propel Development
Take in info with stuff we already know and incorporate it with an existing schema.
ex. Grasping schema -> certain objects are easy to grasp like blocks; child figures out marbles work too, assimilates this into existing grasping schema.
When new information doesn't fit into an existing schema and the child has to adjust a schema to make it fit.
ex. Grasping schema: child tries to grasp a textbook but it is too heavy, schema reorganized to not include heavy objects
A schema can become off-balanced, and they begin to be rearranged in starker ways. Equilibrium returns the balance to create a stable understanding. This becomes a new qualitative way/ understanding of how a child views the world.
- Discontinuous: happens in large shifts
- Invariant Sequence: in same order for everyone
- Hierarchical: each stage builds on the previous
- Domain General: can be applied across cultures
Piaget's 4 Stages
1) Sensoriomotor: 0 to ~2 years
2) Preoperational: 2 to ~7 years
3) Concrete operational: 7 to ~12 years
4) Formal Operational: 12 years and greater
Sensoriomotor: 0 to ~2 years
- Most rapid cognitive development
- Intelligence through sensory and motor abilities
- Even younger infants movements are a fundamental intelligence
- There are six sub stages*
- Accomplishment: integration of motor movements and sensory experience to produce intelligent action
Sensoriomotor: Six Sub Stages
(1) Modification of Reflexes, adapts them for their benefit (0 to 1 month)
(2) Organize reflexes into larger behaviors, centered around their own body and are repetitive (1 to 4 months)
(3) Environment is included in interactions, infants lack object permanence (4 to 8 months)
(4) Intentional, coordinated behavior, cause and effect, now has object permanence but it's fragile. A not B error with blankets. (8 to 12 months)
(5) Actively explore how objects can be used, "child scientist" emerges (12 to 18 months)
(6) Mental representations and combinations; deferred imitation. (18 to 24 months)
Preoperational: 2 to ~7 years
Major Advancement: symbolic representation. ex. pretend play, language
1. Egocentric: difficulty seeing the world from others' points of views. ex. Doll with the mountains can't picture the view from the doll's perspective
2. Centration: narrowly focuses through, focuses on a single feature of the object or event, ignoring the other features ex. problems with conservation
Concrete operational: 7 to ~12 years
- Egocentric tendencies decline
Major Advances: logical reasoning, ability to apprehend multiple dimensions, solve conservation problems
Major Weaknesses: limited to concrete situations; not hypothetical or abstract situations
4) Formal Operational: 12 years and greater
Able to think abstractly/hypothetically. Able to reason systematically about all possible outcomes. Stage not attained universally (unlike the other 3 stages)
Piaget's Theory: Weaknesses
- Depicts children's thinking as being more consistent than it is, doesn't account for variability in kid's performance.
- Doesn't account for the variability of parents and how they affect the child's development
- underestimates the cognitive competence of infants and young children; employed hard tasks for them to do
- under values social cultural environment
- vague about cognitive processes and mechanisms
Emphasize precise characterization of the processes underlying thinking and development
- structure of cognition system
- mental operations that underlie our behavior and lead to cognitive growth
- compares human thinking to computer processes
Info Processing: Mental Hardware
Built in mental and neural structure that allow the mind to operate. ex memory, processing efficiently
Info Processing: Mental Software
Mental "programs" that are the basis for performing particular tasks ex. learning memory strategies, knowledge.
Over development, mental hardware/software become more complex, powerful and efficient
Info Processing Skills
All dramatically improve over development, kids respond appropriately, learn more effectively, and demonstrate greater cognitive competence
Info Processing Skills: Attention
Mental processes that determines which info an individual processes further
- Orienting response: views string or novel stimulus and orients to it.
- Habituation: unresponsive to repeated exposure
Info Processing Skills: Memory
How info is encoded, stored and retrieved
- Working/short-term: briefly stored; involved in actively attending to, gathering, maintain, storing, and processing info
- Long-term: knowledge retained over lifetime
- Autobiographical memory: coherent set of memories about one's own life
- Executing Functioning: control of cognition. (1) Inhibiting temping actions that are coherent (2) enhancing working memory through strategies (3) being cognitively flexible
Prominent Person: Lev Vygotsky
Development is an apprenticeship, child relies on guidance. Children are social learners, they advance most when they collaborate with those who are more skilled.
Important concepts: (1) Zone of proximal development (2) social scaffolding
Social-cultural: zone of proximal development
difference between what children can do with assistance versus alone
Social-cultural: social scaffolding
more competent people provide a temporary framework that supports children's thinking at a higher level than a child would manage alone.
Development doesn't progress in stable stages, its dynamic! Thoughts and actions are constantly changing. Child is a complex system, composed of many elements that are integrated in more or less stable way. Actions shape thinking (ex. crawling to walking, is incline too steep)
Infant's Naive Theories: Piaget vs. Recent Views
Piaget: Understanding is constructed, emerges slowly over development
Recent View: infants process naive theories of physical/ social world
Infant's Naive Theories: Methods Used With Infants
- Violation of expectation: what do infants expect if we violate this how will they react, should look at the violation/ unrealistic event longer
- Based on what infants do naturally; look at novel, interesting things
Infant's Naive Theories: Baillargeon
Screen experiment, infant looks longer at 3.5 months
- Shows object permanence: knows the barrier is there even through they don't see it; expect it to be there. Sill doesn't search for hidden objects (at 8 months they do). Disconnect with the way they see the world and their actions
General ideas that organize objects, events, qualities, or abstractions on the basis of some similarities. There are an infinite number of concepts. They allow us to generalize from our prior experiences and help us understand the world and act effectively in it.
Focus on fundamental concepts about:
- objects: who, what
- experiences: why, where, when, how many
Children break concepts into three categories.
Objects -> Inanimate objects, people, and other animals.
Children don't know where to place plants
Development of Concepts
Children form categories or objects during first months of life. Rely on perceptual categorization: grouping objects by appearance.
- 3 months -> habituation
- 6 months broader categorization, mammals vs. non-mammals
- 2nd year they can categorize by shape
Development of Concepts: Category Hierarchy
Beyond infancy children form category hierarchies. They have sub-set relations.
Umbrella/superordinate <- basic <- subordinate