History 307 - Midterm 1
Terms in this set (59)
Hannibal in Rome
Invaded in 203 BCE, Stays for 15 years. Countryside of Italy suffers greatly during this time, people move to the city to seek protection because Hannibal's army was not large enough to invade the city
celebration of Roman victory with a display of power. Parade of the king/family of the taken land, stolen jewels and artwork that is dedicated to the gods
Resources into Rome
Led to a decline of morals. Changed from the humble, down to earth, reliable powerhouse to people who were addicted to luxury
Significance of aquaducts
Built after wars, city has grown in size so need water. 50 years earlier they did not have the money for this. 72 miles in length
Name at birth: C. Octavius. Nephew of Caesar Augustus, came back to Rome after he was killed. Was only 18 when he inherited Rome. United Roman empire. Caesar accepted C. Octavius as his son in his will. after this, changes name to Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus. After he returned all his power back to Senate they gave him a new name: Augustus
Augustus title after gave power back to Senate
Imperator Caesar Augustus: Triumphant general Caesar Illustrious one
made city safer, more of a world center, Romans believed he was a god, Built a forum- second to build his own forum
Fire of Rome in 64- Niro blames Christians. Niro reconstructed Rome on a grander scale because of this. Suggested that he was to blame for the fire
officer class of the Roman army
Marius changed army in 106..
Before Marius, had to own property and br ing own equipment.
poor people who showed up with bad equipment
A Roman ideal- will keep volunteering for the army until he is turned away
Aelius Aristides "In Praise of Rome"
A deliverance, speech by Aelius Aristides in 154 CE. He can't say anything critical because he's standing in front of the emperor. Delivered in Greek because latin inferior. Target audience is emporer, crowd, family,
Second century- "Five greatest emperors"
Nerfa (not effective) Trajan (117, young), Adrian (beard, traveler), Pius (target audience of speech above) Aurelius (dies of old age)
lost important position in Roman empire
Constantinople/Byzantium/ establishes christianity/ Son only visits Rome once
Until 107 the Roman army consisted of two groups
1) Roman citizens who were wealthy enough to buy their own weapons
2) Officially recognized allies
Warfare in general
Not a standing army- made up of farmers, shopkeepers
army only exists
when there is a war going on
leave through the city signing archaic poems- could not understand language or intentions behind the open. a good luck charm
when war was declared what happened
specific soil was identifies, and someone throws a spear into it. That is the declaration of war
By second century BCE
superpower, up to the Po river. by 200 BC almost permanently involved in war
problems with army
200 onward there was a high frequency of warfare- need armies in multiple places makes it really difficult. Longer they are away, harder to do the jobs as a Roman citizen. Soldiers were not paid. No rewards.
Romans to Roman allies serving
1:1 3rd century
1:2 second century
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus and Gaius Sempronius Gracchus
reform Roman society. Controversial, both murdered
First of family to enter the Senate. Once you are in, you are in forever. Held the consul position many years in a row, this was unprecedented in Roman history. Most powerful man in Rome
Life expectancy of a Roman person
25-30 years because so many children die before the age of 10
Reign of Augustus
a turning point in Roman history. in the 500 years after his reign, Rome had the same institutions as Republican period but had a different function
who did the Comitia Centuriata elect
elects highest magistrates (consuls, praetors, and censors)
where did the Comitia Centuriata meet
Campus Martius, outside city walls
how was the Comitia Centuriata divided?
voters divided into centuries (army units of a different size, not necessarily 100)
what was the division of the Comitia Centuriata based on
based on property value and age. Men over 46 who had a certain amount of wealth voted in the same century
how did the voting work in the Comitia Centuriata
the majority vote of each century carried it.
Where did the Comitia Tributa meet?
how did the Comitia Tributa vote?
They voted in tribes (territorial units)
how were the Comitia Tributa allocated
new citizens allocated to a tribe on the basis of their geographic residence
how did this work with slaves in the Comitia Tributa
slaves given their freedom were assigned to four tribes of the city. With respect to numbers, there were more citizens in the four urban tribes than other 31, but each counted as one vote
Who was elected by the Comitia Tributa?
quaestors and patricians and aediles
Where did the Concilium Plebis meet?
Met in the forum
Who was membership restricted to in the Concilium Plebis?
How did the Concilium Plebis vote?
in their tribes
who was elected in the Concilium Plebis?
tribunes of the plebs and plebeian aediles were elected
133 BCE plebian
"forum for reform"
when do these elections take place
Where would public officials go to get their way?
you would either vote with a V meaning
as you propose
i vote against
how would you vote
drop a tablet into an urn
highest power in Rome, if you are a consul you have won four political elections.
what did the consuls do
They commanded armies fields, assembled senate, presided over senate meetings
how many Consuls were there?
justice and jurisprudence. One for legal business, one cases for non-Romans in absence of consuls, they would lead armies- 2 of them
oversaw markets- 2 of them
public treasury and tax collection
counts Roman citizens, appointed every five years, looked at Roman citizens like investigators, political weapons
What were the three periods in Rome
monarchy, republican, imperial periods
How could you join the Senate
once you were named a quaestor you could join the Senate
Who was the Republic good for?
the populist politician, great for the senate/wealthy men were able to work their way up to different magistrates
who was the Republic not good for?
basically everyone else. not