AP US History: Chapter 29
Terms in this set (61)
The Republic party was split betweeen Taft and Roosevelt so the Democrats had a chance of winning for the first time in 16 years. Woodrow Wilson was a once mild conservative who was now a militant progressive. He taught at princeton, was governer of new jersey and he attacked trusts and passed liberal means. Very strong minded and idealistic. When he thought he was right he would break before bending. He appointed some conservatives to the Federal Reserve and Treade commisions to satisy businesses. Most of his focus was on progressives however.
Wilson's system. Supported NO trusts and supported small businesses, but he basically shunned social welfare programs. Included many progressive reforms. Specifically attacked the banks, trusts, and tarriffs
Roosevelts campaine which was inspired by Herbert Croly's book. Also campaigned for women's suffrage and a wide range of social wellfare programs, such as minimum wage laws and social insurance
Wrote The Promise of the American Life which said that the good strusts should be left alone and the bad trusts should be punished.
Eugene V Debbs
Socialist running against Taft, roosevelt, and Wilson. He racked up 900,000 votes.
Triple Wall of Priveledges
Banks, trusts, and tariffs
Underwood Tariff of 1913
Wilson's way of attacking trusts. It largely reduced import fees and it also enacted graduated income tax under the newly passed 16th ammendment.
Louis D Brandeis
wrote the book Other People's Money and How the Bankers Use it. Further showed the problems of the American banking system. Wilson nominated him to the supreme court making him the first jew in that position.
Federal Reserve Act
This was the reform of the existing banking system. It created the Federal Reserve Board
The Federal Reserve Board
watched over the the nationwide system of 12 regional banking districts each with its own central bank and had the power to issue paper money (Federal Reserve Notes)
Federal Trade Comission Act
Commissioned a president appointed position which investigated the activities of trusts and stopeed unfair trade practices and bribery.
Clayton Anti- Trust Act
Lengthened the Sherman Anti Trust Act list of acts that were objectionable. Such as the fact that labor Unions were not indeed trusts. Legalized strikes and peaceful picketing by labor unions.
Federal Farm Loan Act
offered credit for farmers at low rates of interest.
permitted loans on the security of staple crops
La Follette Seamen's Act
required good treatemnt of America's sailors buit it sent merchant freight rates soaring as a result the cost to maintain a sailor's health
Workingmen's Compensation Act
granted the assistance of civil service workers during times of instablility but Supreme Court invalidated it.
established an eight hour workday with overitme pay.
granted full terrirorial status to the Philipines and promised independence as soon as a stable government could be put in place.
The first time Wilson weakens his stance on his anti imperialistic beliefes. He sende marines to Haiti after the populace brutally tore apart their brutal president. He sent them there to protesct american intersts there. They remained there for the next 19 years making it a protectorate.
the US had exploited Mexico for years. The MExicans were tired of it. They revolted and had this guy in charge. This lead to the massive immigration of rebels to southerm US. The rebels threatened american lived but Wilson refused to intervene to protect americna lives. He also refused to accept Heurta's regime because of the bloody way he came to power. He did let minitions flow to Huerta's rivals Pancho Villa and Carranza
A small group of Americans were accidentally arrested. Wilson thretened to use force and ordered the navy to take over Vera Cruz both Huerta and Carranza were opposed to this. The ABC powers intervened and prevented them from going to war. Huerta los power but Carranza came to power and regretted the doings of wilsom.
He was initially with carranza when Huerta was in rula and then once Carranza came to rule he became an enemy to Huerta as well. He killed 16 american engineers in Mexico and later killed 19 americans in new mexico.
John J. Pershing
Sent to take care of Pancho Villa. He penerated deep into MExico clashed with carranza and villa;s forces but didn't take up Villa.
Archduke Franz Ferdinanad
was shot by a nationalistic serb. Austria made an ultmatum and demanded the serbs to agree. The serbs did not agree enough so Austria declared war with germany on it's side. Serb's had the Russians on their side. France joined russia as well. Germany declared war on russia and France and invaded Belgium pulling Britain into war.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria
Germany was not going to sit back and watch the US and the Allies gand up against it. It declared it would be going using this around the British Isles. It told the US that it would try not to attack neutral ships but mistakes were bound to happen. Wilson warned that Germany would be put under strict accountability if anything did happen however.
A british passenger liner was sunk by german U-Boats. It took 1198 lives, 128 were american. .According to the Germans they had sent a note prior to this warning us that an American Ship may be torpedoed. Also the ship was found to contain ammunition. Wilson knew that bringing an ununited nation into war was a bad idea so he sent a series of stron notes to the German War lords.
Then the Arabic was sunk kiling two americans. After that the Germans agreed to not sinked unarmed ships without warning. After it broke that pledge by sinking the Sussex the Germans said that they would would not sink passenger or merchant vessels without warning so long as the americans get the British to stop the bLockade. The US couldn's do that and was prone to be pulled into war.
Charles Evans Hughes
the republicans chose this guy as the new president. He made defferent pledges and promises depending on where he was. He was nicknamed Evasive. Wilson won over him telling the US he would keep us out of war. Ironically he lead us into war and he knew war was inevetible during the election. Many people felt cheated. He barely beat hughes by like 30 electoral votes.
Pro-Roosevelt Progressive convention
- 2k delegates from 40 states, symbolized the rising
and support for
- Felt "as strong as a bull moose"
The _________ virtually guaranteed a Democrat victory
New Nationalism vs New Freedom - similarities
Both favored a more
active government role
in economic and social
Roosevelt's New Nationalism vs Wilson's New Freedom - differences
- TR believed in continued
paralleled by the
agencies in Washington,
, as well as social welfare* (minimum wage and socialistic social insurance)
- Wilson favored
, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of
markets. Shunned social-welfare proposals and pinned economic faith on
. Fragmentation of the big industrial combines by vigorous enforcement of
1912 election - events, significance, etc.
- Offered voters a choice of
- Heat of the campaign cooled when TR was
and suspended active campaigning for 2 weeks but went to his speech anyway
- William Jennings Bryan sided with Wilson
Progressive party's future
→ less supporters
- Helped spur the enactment of many of their pet reforms by the Wilsonian Democrats
Result of the 1912 election
- Wilson was a
- Republicans put into minority status in Congress for 6 years and out of the WH for 8
- Taft became chief justice of the SC in 1921
________ was the 2nd Democratic president since 1861 and the first man from a seceded southern state to reach the White House since Zachary Taylor
Characteristics of Woodrow Wilson
with the Confederacy's attempts to gain independence
- Sincerity and
- President should play a
— Congress could not function unless the president got out in front and provided
- Stubborn (would break before he would bend, unlike TR)
Banking and currency problems
- Outgrown by the Republic's
- Financial structure under the Civil War National Banking Act revealed
- Panic of 1907 - inelasticity of currency
in NY and other
— could not be mobilized in times of financial stress
Arsene Pujo (Pujo Committee)
and went into the
La Follette Seaman's Act
(1915) Required decent
(freight rates spiraled upward with the crew's wages)
1916 election for Wilson
- Needed to identify himself clearly as the
- Appeased businesspeople by making
appointments to the FRB and the FTA, but most energy was devoted to cultivating progressive support
1914-1915 in Haiti - assassination of Haitian president
to protect American lives and property (remained for 19 years, made a protectorate)
Purchase of the Virgin Islands
1917, US bought it from Denmark. Made the US a larger force in foreign involvement
Revolution in Mexico
- Revolted in 1913,
the popular president and
installed General Victoriano Huerta
(Indian) in his position
- Resulted in
to the US — often worked on highways and RRs or as fruit harvesters
- Often separated into Spanish-speaking
that made a unique borderland
Foreign intervention in Mexico
intervention, but Wilson
- Wilson sent aggressive ambassador to Mexico (he refused to recognize Huerta as the govt leader)
to flow to Huerta's principal rivals (Venustiano Carranza and Francisco Villa)
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Serb patriot Gavrilio Princip
killed the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary in Sarajevo while eating a
(what a classy fellow)
-> Threat to Serbia
European affairs after the assassination
) refused to bow down
- Russia and France advanced on Germany
- Germany attacked France through Belgium (neutral)
- GB now involved
France, Britain, and Russia (later Japan and Italy)
Wilson's proclamation of neutrality — effect on European powers
Both wanted American involvement, not neutrality
- British: Close economic, cultural, and linguistic ties
- Germans and Austro-Hungarians: Natural sympathies with transplanted countrymen (many immigrants)
- Kaiser Wilhelm II seemed to be the embodiment of arrogant autocracy (and the strike at
- Tarnished the image of the Central Powers in American eyes when they went to
- 1915: German operative left
on an NY elevated car, documents for
Most Americans wanted to ________ WWI
stay out of
Financial Crisis of 1914
- American industry onto prosperity
- Financed by American bankers (JP Morgan and Company) advanced to the
$2.3 billion during American
Europe's reaction to American investment even during neutrality
protested even though it didn't violate neutrality laws
Germany couldn't trade
them in the North Sea
- Britain forced trade between US and Germany away, now only Britain
Announcement of the U-boat Campaign
- Berlin announced a
submarine war area
around the British Isles
- Wilson warned that it would be held to
for any attacks on American vessels or citizens
in the war zone. U-boat attacked played an important role in
Wilson's actions of the Lusitania
to go into
(remembered the War of 1812)
- Attempted to use
to punish the German warlords publically
, assaults on the trusts, and Wilson's feebleness in dealing with MX and Germany
"He Kept Us Out of War"
Wilson's campaign slogan in 1916
Wilson owed his votes to:
the Midwest and the West (progressive and anti-war policies)
leader in Mexican Revolution