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Terms in this set (49)
Law of Thermodynamics
describes the specifics for the transport of heat and work in Thermodynamic processes - 1st law states that energy can not be created nor destroyed
Green pigment for plants - help with photosynthesis
Energy value of foods measurement - quanity of heat required to raise temp of 1 gram of water by 1 degree celsius
Amt of heat required to raise the temp of 1 kilogram of water by one degree Celsuis
measurement of heat generated as a result of metabolism
Coefficient of Digestibility
Represents the actual energy that the body will yield from the foods it consumes - or reflects the total energy the body has available from the food it consumes; based on how the body actually digests food.
Atwater General Factors
identifies the calorie value for fats, proteins and carbohydrates
Protein and Carbohydrate = 4 kcal per gram
Dietary Fats = 9 kcal per gram
Alcohol = 7 kcal per gram
Releases heat and energy...
Absorbs heat and energy
Adenosine Triphosphate - the only form of energy that can be directly used for muscular contractions
A protein that catalzyes a biochemical reaction or change
Found in muscle tissue and capable of storing and providing energy for muscular contraction when ATP is deleted. CP is split by Creatine Kinase which release ADP molecules. ADP binds with phosphate to create more ATP for energy.
An Enzyme present in muscles and other tissues that catalyzes the reversible conversion of ADP and phosphocreatine into ATP and creatine.
The process of adding phosphate back into a molecule such as ADP
Energy production in the body without availalbe oxygen
A metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid, releasing energy in the form of ATP. (Body gets ATP from itself, then CP then through Glycolysis...)
An intercellular organelle responsible for generating most of the ATP required for cellular operations
Chemical reaction where the variation of free energy is negative, identifying the direction that the reaction will follow.
Products of Gycolysis
Two molecules of ATP and two Substrates: lactic acid or pyruvate. (ATP derived from this system is a major contributor to activities lasting up to 90 seconds).
is the primary energy system to fule the average weight lifting set.
an energy substrate produce during breakdown of glucose.
an energy substrate as the end product of Glycolysis
Physical and mental weariness resulting from exertion
Buffered form of lactic acid which can be used as an additional energy source.
The generation of glucose from other molecules like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine).
Refers to the recycling of lactate or lactic acid produced by muscle during anaerobic metabolism. The lactate is converted to glucose by the liver.
The difference between the total oxygen consumed during an exercise bout and the actual amount of oxygen required.
Metabolic steady state
when the utilization of oxygen matches the demand
bodies ability to produce energy (ATP) in the presence of Oxygen.
Recovery oxygen consumption
The amt of extra oxygen required by muscle tissue during post-exercise recovery from vigorous activity.
Citric Acid Cycle or Krebs cycle
a process in which ATP is formed using oxygen and energy substrates or oxidative phosphorylation. Blender analogy: Mitrochondria are blenders. Inside the body takes glucose, addin in some O2, then blends it through 11 reactions and spits out 36 molecules of ATP, water, and CO2 and heat.
formation of ATP from the energy released by the oxidation of various substrates , especially the acids involved in the krebs cycle
consists of a glycerol and 3 fatty acids formed into one molecule. Important energy source forming much of the fat stored in the body.
An enzyme capable of breaking down a lipid (fat) molecule.
Part of a Lipid molecule and can be derived from fat by hydolysis, often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated.
The breakdown of lipids
A blood protein produced in the liver that helps to regulate water distribution in the body.
Free Fatty Acids
Whem fatty acids are not attached to other molecules.
proteins that carry fats and fat-like substance ,such as cholesterol in the blood.
process by which fats are broken down in the mitrochondria to generate Acetyl-CoA, the entry molecule for the Citric Acid Cycle
Compound at functions as a co-enzyme in many biological acetylation reactions and is formed as an intermediate in the oxidation of carbohydrate, fats. and proteins
Basic molecules consisting of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen that combine to form proteins.
Branched chain aminos
Including leucione, isoleucine, glutamine, aspartic acid, and valine; used for fuel during long term exercise bouts.
To breakdown a protein by remiving an amino group
To transfer of an amino group from one molecule to another without the intermediate formation of ammonia
A series of oxidation-reduction reactions during the aerobic production of ATP
The buffered form of oxaloacetic that binds with acetyl-CoA to enter the citric Acid cycle
Acute peripheral fatique
Fatigue during physical work, caused by an inability of the body to supply sufficient energy to the contracting muscles to meet the increased energy deman. This causes contractile dysfunction that is manifested in the eventual reduction or lack of ability of a single muscle or local group of muscles to do work.
The central component to fatique generally described as a reduction in the neural drive or nerve-based motor command to working muscles that results in a decline in the force output - 86
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