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Unit VII: Absolutism, Enlightenment, Revolutions (Jan 8-Feb 1)

Mr. Sickle's Hist test Feb. 2013
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Maria Theresa
Queen of Austria, limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs,
Enlightenment
A popular philosophical movement of the 1700s that focused on human reasoning, natural science, political and ethical philosophy.
Hobbes
English philosopher and political theorist best known for his book Leviathan (1651), in which he argues that the only way to secure civil society is through universal submission to the absolute authority of a sovereign.
Montesquieu
Dividing the power- Checks and balances. wrote "The Spirit of the Laws" and believd that seperation of powers was the best way to promote liberty.
Adam Smith
Scottish professor of philosophy. Developed the idea of free enterprise, critical of mercantilism. Wrote Wealth of Nations. Free Trade
Stamp Act
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents, to get money back from the 7 Year's War and would charge the colonies.
Patrick Henry
"Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death" speaker.

> urged the Americans to fight, saying that waiting for the past ten years for something to change was a waste of time.
Marie Antoinette
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
Napoleon
A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.
religious tolerance
willingness to let others practice their own beliefs
, Idea that people of different religions should live in peace together
Russian Campaign
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Simon Bolivar
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Haiti
Slaves rebelled against their owners and eventually won.

Napoleon withdrew his French forces from Haiti because he needed them back in England, which resulted in Haiti declaring their independence in 1804.
Joseph II
Son of Maria Teresa. Enlightened monarch. Ruled Austria. Centralized Authority, ecclesiastical policies, economic and agrarian reform
Social Contract
Invented by Hobbes.
Governments relation ship with the people and vise versa.
Locke
Government in power but needs to be limited by the constitution- if they aren't following the constitution- kick them out. Life, Liberty, and Property - people make a deal with the government in return for protection.
Leviathan
Introduced by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
ilaissez faire
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taxation without representation
England taxed the american colonies without having the colonies represnt them selves in the English Parliament
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
Robespierre
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
Corsica
An island in the Mediterranean where Napoleon was born
Mass/maneuver
Napoleons strategy of fighting.
Focusing all the army's mass on the "center of gravity" of the enemy.
scorched-earth
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L'Ouverture
Haitian revolution leader
Father Hidalgo
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Catherine The Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia, enlightened despot, responsible for many positive changes in Russia.
Rights
People wanted liberty and equality. lack of rights= revolution
Rousseau
French philosopher from 1712-1778 who believed that people are naturally good, but are corrupted by society. People should choose the rulers + the leaders
Republic
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Wollstonecraft
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Declaration of Independence
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Bourgeoisie
middle class
Jacobins
'Extremists' in the French Revolution.
-guillotine (chopped heads)
-Napolean supported them
Napoleonic Code
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center of gravity
The center/focus of the nation/army.
Waterloo
site of Napoleon's defeat by British and Prussian armies in 1815 ,ended his last bid for power
Mexico
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Land taxation
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Constitution
A plan provides the rules for government
Voltaire
Enlightenment
checks and balances
created to make everything in the system of the gov. to be equal and not over-powerful.
Montesquieu was for these.
Seven Year's War
1756-1763 war France and Great Britain for power and control of land,
Louis XVI
King of England - dealt with American Revolution
Reign of Terror
French Revolution going crazy- i.e. Jacobins and guillotine
Plebiscite
a vote by the electorate determining public opinion on a question of national importance
Guerrilla Warfare
Hit and run type of tactic- George Washington and troops did this, inspired by the Native Americans
Congress of Vienna
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Jose de San Martin
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