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occurs when rock changes shape due to stress


the amount of force on a given area




pulling/ stretching


bending of rock layers

Anticline, syncline, monocline

3 types of folds


upward arching fold; results from horizontal compression


downward fold; results from horizontal compression


folded rock layers with one incline or decline where both ends are horizontal;results from vertical compression


surface along which rocks break and slide past eachother

normal, reverse, strike-slip

3 types of faults

normal fault

when the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall; tension

reverse fault

when the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall; compression

Strike-slip fault

when the rocks break and the 2 halves move in opposite directions horizontally; results when force is applied from opposite directions

folded mountains

form at congruent boundaries; form when to continents collide and rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upward

fault-block mountains

form when tension causes large blocks of rock to drop down in relation to other rocks; tilting of rock layers can occur as tension pulls the rock layers apart

volcanic mountains

can form at convergent boundaries when the rocks that melted in subduction zones rises to earths surface and erupts to form a volcano


rising of parts of earths crust to higher elevations


crust coming back up to original elevation after a weight is removed


sinking parts of earths crust to lower elevations

rift zone

forms when tension pulls plates apart creating a set of deep cracks

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