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Biology 101 Chapter 6
Terms in this set (46)
What is photosynthesis?
A process which uses the energy of sunlight to assemble carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water
Describe the light-dependent reactions
1st stage of photosynthesis.
Light energy is transferred to ATP and NADPH
What happens during photosynthesis 1?
Under normal conditions, electrons flow from PS II through cytochrome bf to PSI
What happens during photosynthesis 2?
is the first step of photosynthesis, where the chlorophyll molecule uses light energy to take an electron from a water molecule.
Describe the light-independent reaction
2nd stage of photosynthesis.
Energy in ATP and NADPH drives synthesis of glucose and other carbohydrates from CO2 and water
What are photoautotrpohs?
Uses photosynthesis to make food from CO2 and water releasing O2 into the atmosphere
A renewable resource
Organisms that obtain carbon by consuming prexisting organic molecules
Formula for photosynthesis
The balanced chemical equation for photosynthesis is 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
can be used to describe constituents of individual enzymatic reactions or entire metabolic pathways.
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
Waste product (byproduct)
An unusable or unwanted substance or material produced during or as a result of a process, such as metabolism or manufacturing
Organisms that undergo photosynthesis
Plants, algea, cyanobacteria, and some protists are capable of photosynthesis.
the reaction that occurs as the first phase of photosynthesis, in which energy in the form of light is absorbed and converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP
At reaction center, chlorophyll a called P680 absorbs light energy mostly at 680nm
At reaction center, chlorophyll a called P700 absorbs light energy mostly at 700nm
Enzyme mediated reactions that build sugars in the stroma of chloroplasts
Properties of life
order, sensitivity or response to the environment, reproduction, growth and development, regulation, homeostasis, and energy processing
An organic molecule that selectively absorbs light of specific wavelengths
The most common photosynthetic pigment
Absorbs violet and red light (appears green)
A photosynthetic pigment that traps light energy and channels it to chlorophyll a, the primary pigment, which initiates the reactions of photosynthesis.
A yellow-green chlorophyll pigment which occurs only in plants and green algae
Any of the pigment molecules, typically yellow, red, and orange, that interact with chlorophylls inside chloroplasts when they absorb light primarily for photosynthesis and protection from photodamage, and are also found in chromoplasts where they are produced and stored
Structure of the chloroplast
An organelle that specializes in photosynthesis in plants and many protists
Folded membrane that makes up thylakiod
Graba (granum, singular)
contains the light harvesting system composed of chlorophyll and phospholipids.
A semi fluid matrix surrounded by two outer membranes of Thebes's chloroplast
Plants that use only the Calvin-benson cycle to fix carbon
Plants that have an additional set of reactions for sugar production in dry days when stomata are closed, compensates for ineffciency of rubisco
Plants with an alternative carbon fixing pathway that allows them to conserve water in climates where days are hot
At high O2 levels rubisco attached to oxygen instead of carbon
Organisms that make their own organic compounds from inorganic compounds (water and CO2)
The distance between the crests of two successive waves of light (nm)
Identified colors of light that drive photosynthesis (violet and red) by using a prism to divide light into colors
Unit with chlorophyll a and other pigment molecules and proteins anchored in the thylakiod membrane
Oxygen is a _ of photosynthesis
is a waste product or byproduct of photosynthesis
Is a reactants that goes on an enzyme
Reaction that produces ATP using ATP synthase and the potential energy of proton gradient
Movement of protons across membrane
Photosystem 2 replaces its electrons from _
During Photosystem 2, Water will be split which releases electrons
runs in type 1 photosystems to make ATP, electrons are cycled back to photosystem 1 and NADPH does not form
is a light driven reaction that attaches a phosphate Group to a molecule
Extraction of carbon atoms from inorganic sources (atmosphere) and in corporate lung them into Ann organic molecule
Environments differ and so do details of photosynthesis
C3 plants, C4 plants, CAM plants
Small openings through the waxy cuticle covering epidermal surfaces of leaves and green stems
Plants adapted to warmer environments deal with the loss of CO2 in two ways
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